Radical cystectomy and lymphadenectomy for invasive bladder cancer: Towards the evolution of an optimal surgical standard
ABSTRACT The surgical management of invasive bladder cancer has undergone a significant evolution in technique since its initial introduction. Changes in the extent of surgery have largely reflected a better understanding of the natural history of bladder cancer and the recognized pathways of progression. Incorporation of contemporary surgical techniques that target the perivesical soft tissues, regional lymph nodes, and adjacent organs appear to enhance oncologic outcomes. A growing body of evidence indicates that the quality of radical cystectomy (RC) directly affects patient outcome. Recently, quality of life and functional considerations have led to surgical modifications such as nerve-, prostate-, vaginal wall-, and urethra-sparing approaches. While some modifications in appropriate candidates appear not to decrease cancer control, further studies will be needed to establish their role and safety. This ongoing evolution in the technique of RC and pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) may help define a new surgical standard that provides optimal benefit in patients with invasive bladder cancer.
- SourceAvailable from: Vladimir Bobek[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Approximately one third of patients diagnosed with muscle-invasive urinary bladder cancer (UBC) have undetected metastases at the time of treatment of the primary tumor. Currently there are no reliable specific serum markers for monitoring and evaluating risk profiles of urothelial cancers. Several studies suggest that detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) may correlate with the disease status and prognosis at baseline and early in the treatment of cancers. In this study a new way of isolation and in vitro cultivation of CTCs of urinary bladder cancer was introduced.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Radical cystectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy represents the gold standard for treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Extent of the lymph node dissection and lymph node involvement during radical cystectomy are the most powerful prognostic factors associated with poor oncological outcome. However, the optimal boundaries of the lymph node dissection during a radical cystectomy are controversial. The published literature based mostly on retrospective studies suggests that increasing the number of nodes excised may have therapeutic and diagnostic benefits without significantly increasing the surgical morbidity. These conclusions are, however, influenced by selection and surgeon biases, inconsistencies in the quality of the surgery, and node count variability. In this paper, we establish the current understanding about the utility of lymphadenectomy during a radical cystectomy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer.01/2011; 2011:758189. DOI:10.1155/2011/758189
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The incidence of regional lymph node metastases in patients with renal cell carcinoma ranges from 13% to over 30%, and portends a poor prognosis in both locally advanced and metastatic settings. Patients with small, organ confined tumors are at low risk for regional lymph node metastases and lymph node dissection can be omitted in these patients. In contrast, patients with clinical evidence of regional lymph node metastases may derive therapeutic benefit from aggressive removal of all affected lymph nodes within the retroperitoneum. Patients with locally advanced primary tumors but no clinical evidence of lymphadenopathy can be selectively targeted for aggressive lymph node dissection as an adjunct to radical nephrectomy, based on their individual risk of harboring micrometastatic lymph node disease. Several predictive tools have been developed for prediction of occult retroperitoneal nodal metastases. Although early identification of micrometastatic nodal disease in this group of patients has not conclusively been shown to improve survival, accurate pathologic nodal staging allows for early implementation of adjuvant systemic therapies in these high-risk patients. No formal guidelines exist regarding the extent and boundaries of lymph node dissection at the time of radical nephrectomy; however, overwhelming evidence suggests that the staging accuracy of lymph node dissection can be markedly improved if extended template dissections, rather than limited node sampling, is implemented.The Cancer Journal 01/2008; 14(5):308-14. DOI:10.1097/PPO.0b013e31818675eb · 3.61 Impact Factor