Preferential loss of central (trunk) adiposity in adolescents and young adults after laparoscopic gastric bypass.
ABSTRACT An increasing number of young people are developing severe obesity with adult-like co-morbidities and undergoing bariatric surgery. Although a number of studies have described major weight loss after bariatric surgery, none have examined the proportions of lean body and fat mass lost or the potentially more important issue of changes in regional fat mass distribution after laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery.
Five morbidly obese females (mean age 18) were evaluated by standard anthropometric measures and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry at baseline and 1 year after bariatric surgery. The mean and SD values for the anthropometric and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry body composition variables were calculated, and the differences were evaluated using paired t tests.
Significant body mass index and weight loss were seen in all subjects at 1 year, with the percentage of excess weight loss at 63.4%. Overall fat mass loss exceeded lean mass loss by threefold in this cohort (P <.01), demonstrating the relative sparing of lean mass. Their waist circumference also decreased significantly. Using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry analysis, the vast majority (83%) of central mass loss consisted of adipose tissue. Central fat loss significantly exceeded peripheral fat loss by 1.6-fold (P = .03).
These results have demonstrated the preferential loss of central adiposity in morbidly obese young women after 1 year of surgical weight loss and may be more informative than anthropometric measurements alone. Given the association between central adiposity and the risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease, these results are suggestive of reduced cardiac risk.
SourceAvailable from: Chih-Hsing Wu[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The technique of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been used for several years in the research environment. Its ability to accurately and precisely measure lean, fat, and mineral composition in various body compartments has been well validated. Furthermore, the technique is widely available to clinical patients on existing DXA instruments throughout the world through the use of specific software packages and scanning algorithms. There have been few clear statements regarding the clinical indications for body composition measurement in patients outside the research setting. This is in part because of the lack of specific documented interventions that would be affected by body composition test results, beyond usual clinical advice. We have examined a few of the most common, specific scenarios (HIV therapy, sarcopenia, bariatric surgery, obesity) and proposed indications for body composition assessment. We have also discussed contraindications to body composition testing.Journal of Clinical Densitometry 09/2013; 16(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jocd.2013.08.020 · 1.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES To determine the current rate of inpatient bariatric surgical procedures among adolescents and to analyze national trends of use from 2000 to 2009. DESIGN Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING Discharge data obtained from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids' Inpatient Database, 2000 through 2009. PARTICIPANTS Adolescents (defined herein as individuals aged 10-19 years) undergoing inpatient bariatric procedures. INTERVENTION Inpatient bariatric surgery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary outcome measure was the national population-based bariatric procedure rate. The secondary outcome measures were trends in procedure rates and type, demographics, complication rate, length of stay, and hospital charges from 2000 through 2009. RESULTS The inpatient bariatric procedure rate increased from 0.8 per 100 000 in 2000 to 2.3 per 100 000 in 2003 (328 vs 987 procedures) but did not change significantly in 2006 (2.2 per 100 000) or 2009 (2.4 per 100 000), with 925 vs 1009 procedures. The use of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding approached one-third (32.1%) of all procedures by 2009. The cohort was predominantly female and older than 17 years. The prevalence of comorbidities increased from 2003 (49.3%) to 2009 (58.6%) (P = .002), while the complication rate remained low and the in-hospital length of stay decreased by approximately 1 day (P < .001). Increasing numbers of patients had Medicaid as their primary payer source; however, most (68.3% in 2009) had private insurance. CONCLUSIONS Despite the worsening childhood obesity epidemic, the rate of inpatient bariatric procedures among adolescents has plateaued since 2003. The predominant procedure type has changed to minimally invasive techniques, including laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Trends show low complication rates and decreasing length of stay, despite increasing comorbid conditions among patients.JAMA Pediatrics 12/2012; 167(2):1-7. DOI:10.1001/2013.jamapediatrics.286 · 4.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There is an increasing concern that bariatric surgery results in excessive bone loss as demonstrated by studies that use areal bone mineral density (aBMD) outcomes by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Thus, we explored the effect of bariatric surgery on bone mechanical strength.Obesity Surgery 06/2014; 25(2). DOI:10.1007/s11695-014-1341-8 · 3.74 Impact Factor