Article

Seizure suppression by GDNF gene therapy in animal models of epilepsy.

Experimental Epilepsy Group, Wallenberg Neuroscience Center, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
Molecular Therapy (Impact Factor: 6.43). 07/2007; 15(6):1106-13. DOI: 10.1038/sj.mt.6300148
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Temporal lobe epilepsy patients remain refractory to available anti-epileptic drugs in 30% of cases, indicating a need for novel therapeutic strategies. In this context, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) emerges as a possible new agent for epilepsy treatment. However, a limited number of studies, use of different epilepsy models, and different methods of GDNF delivery preclude understanding of the mechanisms for the seizure-suppressant action of GDNF. Here we show that recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vector-based GDNF overexpression in the rat hippocampus suppresses seizures in two models of temporal lobe epilepsy. First, when rAAV-GDNF was injected before hippocampal kindling, the number of generalized seizures decreased, and the prolongation of behavioral convulsions in fully kindled animals was prevented. Second, injection of rAAV-GDNF after kindling increased the seizure induction threshold. Third, rAAV-GDNF decreased the frequency of generalized seizures during the self-sustained phase of status epilepticus. Our data demonstrate the complexity of mechanisms and the beneficial action of GDNF in epilepsy. Furthermore, we show that ectopic rAAV-mediated GDNF gene expression in the seizure focus is a feasible way to mitigate seizures and provides proof of principle that the neurotrophic factor-based gene therapy approach has the potential to be developed as alternative strategy for epilepsy treatment.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Merab Kokaia, Mar 24, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
73 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) exerts anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects in rodents that appear to be mediated via Y1 receptors. Gene therapy using recombinant viral vectors to induce overexpression of NPY in the hippocampus or amygdala has previously been shown to confer anxiolytic-like effect in rodents. The present study explored an alternative and more specific approach: overexpression of Y1 receptors. Using a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector (rAAV) encoding the Y1 gene (rAAV-Y1), we, for the first time, induced overexpression of functional transgene Y1 receptors in the hippocampus of adult mice and tested the animals in anxiety- and depression-like behavior. Hippocampal Y1 receptors have been suggested to mediate seizure-promoting effect, so the effects of rAAV-induced Y1 receptor overexpression were also tested in kainate-induced seizures. Y1 receptor transgene overexpression was found to be associated with modest anxiolytic-like effect in the open field and elevated plus maze tests, but no effect was seen on depression-like behavior using the tail suspension and forced swim tests. However, the rAAV-Y1 vector modestly aggravated kainate-induced seizures. These data indicate that rAAV-induced overexpression of Y1 receptors in the hippocampus could confer anxiolytic-like effect accompanied by a moderate proconvulsant adverse effect. Further studies are clearly needed to determine whether Y1 gene therapy might have a future role in the treatment of anxiety disorders.
    Journal of Neuroscience Research 02/2012; 90(2):498-507. DOI:10.1002/jnr.22770 · 2.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: AimsEpilepsy affects 0.5–1% of the world's population, and approximately a third of these patients are refractory to current medication. Given their ability to proliferate, differentiate and regenerate tissues, stem cells could restore neural circuits lost during the course of the disease and reestablish the physiological excitability of neurons. This study verified the therapeutic potential of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs) on seizure control and cognitive impairment caused by experimentally induced epilepsy.Main methodsStatus epilepticus (SE) was induced by lithium–pilocarpine injection and controlled with diazepam 90 min after SE onset. Lithium–pilocarpine-treated rats were intravenously transplanted 22 days after SE with BMMCs obtained from enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) transgenic C57BL/6 mice. Control epileptic animals were given an equivalent volume of saline or fibroblast injections. Animals were video-monitored for the presence of spontaneous recurrent seizures prior to and following the cell administration procedure. In addition, rats underwent cognitive evaluation using a Morris water maze.Key findingsOur data show that BMMCs reduced the frequency of seizures and improved the learning and long-term spatial memory impairments of epileptic rats. EGFP-positive cells were detected in the brains of transplanted animals by PCR analysis.SignificanceThe positive behavioral effects observed in our study indicate that BMMCs could represent a promising therapeutic option in the management of chronic temporal lobe epilepsy.
    Life sciences 06/2011; 89(7-8):229-234. DOI:10.1016/j.lfs.2011.06.006 · 2.30 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To date, a variety of pharmacological treatments exists for patients suffering epilepsy, but systemically administered drugs offer only symptomatic relief and often cause unwanted side effects. Moreover, available drugs are not effective in one third of the patients. Thus, more local and more effective treatment strategies need to be developed. Gene therapy-based expression of endogenous anti-epileptic agents represents a novel approach that could interfere with the disease process and result in stable and long-term suppression of seizures in epilepsy patients. We have reported earlier that direct in vivo viral vector-mediated overexpression of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in the rat hippocampus suppressed seizures in different animal models of epilepsy. Here we explored whether transplantation of encapsulated cells that release GDNF in the hippocampus could also exert a seizure-suppressant effect. Such ex vivo gene therapy approach represents a novel, more clinically safe approach, since the treatment could be terminated by retrieving the transplants from the brain. We demonstrate here that encapsulated cells, which are genetically modified to produce and release GDNF, can suppress recurrent generalized seizures when implanted into the hippocampus of kindled rats.
    Experimental Neurology 02/2009; 216(2):413-9. DOI:10.1016/j.expneurol.2008.12.021 · 4.62 Impact Factor