Article

Strain-dependent variation in Mycobacterium bovis BCG-induced human T-cell activation and gamma interferon production in vitro.

Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, UK.
Infection and Immunity (Impact Factor: 4.16). 07/2007; 75(6):3197-201. DOI: 10.1128/IAI.01611-06
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Three commonly used Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine strains elicited different magnitudes of T-cell activation and gamma interferon production in vitro in healthy BCG-vaccinated individuals. Glaxo 1077 exhibited the greatest stimulatory capacity, followed by Pasteur 1173 and then Danish 1331. These differences may affect in vitro stimulation and vaccination-induced immunogenicity.

Full-text

Available from: Hazel M Dockrell, Oct 17, 2014
0 Bookmarks
 · 
63 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The most effective intravesical treatment of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer is instillation of live Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). BCG stimulates the release of cytokines, contributing directly or indirectly to its effectiveness. However, the function of specific cytokines is not well understood. We have undertaken a nonsystematic review of primary evidence regarding cytokine detection, activation and response in BCG patients. Cytokines IL-2, IL-8 and TNF-α appear to be essential for effective BCG therapy and nonrecurrence, while IL-10 may have an inhibitory effect on BCG responses. IL-2, IL-8, TRAIL and TNF-α are potentially predictive of response to BCG. Alterations in genes encoding cytokines may also affect responses. There are significant data showing the association of certain cytokines with successful BCG treatment, and which may be useful predictive markers. Isolating those cytokines mediating efficacy may hold the key to ameliorating BCG's side effects and improving efficacy and patient compliance.
    Future Oncology 06/2014; 10(8):1443-56. DOI:10.2217/fon.14.79 · 2.61 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Next-generation vaccines for tuberculosis should be designed to prevent the infection and to achieve sterile eradication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mucosal vaccination is a needle-free vaccine strategy that provides protective immunity against pathogenic bacteria and viruses in both mucosal and systemic compartments, being a promising alternative to current tuberculosis vaccines. Micro and nanoparticles have shown great potential as delivery systems for mucosal vaccines. In this review, the immunological principles underlying mucosal vaccine development will be discussed, and the application of mucosal adjuvants and delivery systems to the enhancement of protective immune responses at mucosal surfaces will be reviewed, in particular those envisioned for oral and nasal routes of administration. An overview of the essential vaccine candidates for tuberculosis in clinical trials will be provided, with special emphasis on the potential different antigens and immunization regimens.
    Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology 09/2014; 10(9):2295-2316. DOI:10.1166/jbn.2014.1984 · 7.58 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There has been an increased prevalence and severity of asthma in recent decades. This increase in episodes of allergic asthma has been more evident in westernized nations where most infectious diseases have been markedly reduced by early immunization programs and extensive use of antibiotics [1]. Better diagnosis and exposure to conventional allergens have not been able to sufficiently explain the increased incidence of asthma. A substantial shift in genome does not occur in the span of only a few decades, and so genetic predisposition has also been ruled out as a major factor contributing to the observed increase in atopic diseases [1]. Paradoxically, several investigators have observed an inverse relationship between atopic diseases, such as asthma, and exposure to infectious pathogens including Mycobacterium bacilli [2]. Many immune cells and mediators contribute to the development and exacerbation of allergic response and asthma. It is, therefore, not surprising to see the development of numerous drugs to combat the disease. None of these therapies has a curative effect and there still remains a cohort of patients who are unresponsive to these treatments [3]. This warrants continued research in this area to develop more effective therapeutic approaches with minimal side effects to control this debilitating disease. In the following sections, we critically reviewed the role of BCG in preventing a T helper (TH) 2 response, its effect on immune cells, and its efficacy as a potential therapeutic agent to control allergy and asthma.