Assessing the conservation of mammalian gene expression using high-density exon arrays.
ABSTRACT Microarray data from multiple species have been used to study evolutionary constraints on gene expression. Expression measurements from conventional microarray platforms such as the 3' expression arrays are strongly affected by platform-dependent probe effects that may introduce apparent but misleading discrepancies between species. In this manuscript, we assess the conservation of mammalian gene expression in adult tissues using data from a high-density exon array platform. The exon arrays have more than 6 million probes on a single array targeting all exons in a genome. We find that, unlike 3' array data, gene expression measurements from exon arrays reveal patterns of gene expression that are highly conserved between humans and mice in multiple tissues. Our analysis provides strong evidence for widespread stabilizing selection pressure on transcript abundance during mammalian evolution.
SourceAvailable from: Carole Leavel Bassett[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Aspartic proteases (APs) are a large family of proteolytic enzymes found in almost all organisms. In plants, they are involved in many biological processes, such as senescence, stress responses, programmed cell death, and reproduction. Prior to the present study, no grape AP gene(s) had been reported, and their research on woody species was very limited. In this study, a total of 50 AP genes (VvAP) were identified in the grape genome, among which 30 contained the complete ASP domain. Synteny analysis within grape indicated that segmental and tandem duplication events contributed to the expansion of the grape AP family. Additional analysis between grape and Arabidopsis demonstrated that several grape AP genes were found in the corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis, suggesting that these genes arose before the divergence of grape and Arabidopsis. Phylogenetic relationships of the 30 VvAPs with the complete ASP domain and their Arabidopsis orthologs, as well as their gene and protein features were analyzed and their cellular localization was predicted. Moreover, expression profiles of VvAP genes in six different tissues were determined, and their transcript abundance under various stresses and hormone treatments were measured. Twenty-seven VvAP genes were expressed in at least one of the six tissues examined; nineteen VvAPs responded to at least one abiotic stress, 12 VvAPs responded to powdery mildew infection, and most of the VvAPs responded to SA and ABA treatments. Furthermore, integrated synteny and phylogenetic analysis identified orthologous AP genes between grape and Arabidopsis, providing a unique starting point for investigating the function of grape AP genes. The genome-wide identification, evolutionary and expression analyses of grape AP genes provide a framework for future analysis of AP genes in defining their roles during stress response. Integrated synteny and phylogenetic analyses provide novel insight into the functions of less well-studied genes using information from their better understood orthologs.BMC Genomics 08/2013; 14(1):554. DOI:10.1186/1471-2164-14-554 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Genetic changes affecting gene expression contribute to phenotypic divergence, thus understanding how regulatory networks controlling gene expression change over time is critical for understanding evolution. Prior studies of expression differences within and between species have identified properties of regulatory divergence, but technical and biological differences among these studies make it difficult to assess the generality of these properties or to understand how regulatory changes accumulate with divergence time. Here, we address these issues by comparing gene expression among strains and species of Drosophila with a range of divergence times and use F1 hybrids to examine inheritance patterns and disentangle cis- and trans-regulatory changes. We find that the fixation of compensatory changes has caused the regulation of gene expression to diverge more rapidly than gene expression itself. Specifically, we observed that the proportion of genes with evidence of cis-regulatory divergence has increased more rapidly with divergence time than the proportion of genes with evidence of expression differences. Surprisingly, the amount of expression divergence explained by cis-regulatory changes did not increase steadily with divergence time, as was previously proposed. Rather, one species (D. sechellia) showed an excess of cis-regulatory divergence that we argue most likely resulted from positive selection in this lineage. Taken together, this work reveals not only the rate at which gene expression evolves, but also the molecular and evolutionary mechanisms responsible for this evolution.Genome Research 02/2014; DOI:10.1101/gr.163014.113 · 13.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Orthologs are genes from different genomes that originate from a common ancestor gene by speciation event. They are most similar by the structure of encoded proteins and therefore should have a similar function. Here I apply the principle used for detection of structural orthology for a genome-wide analysis of gene expression. For this purpose, I determine the mutual similarity rank in all-by-all comparison of among-tissues expression patterns. The expression of most part of human-mouse orthologs in homologous tissues is poorly correlated (average mutual coexpression rank is only 4835 out of 18,092). Genes from evolutionarily labile gene families, which experience rapid turnover of family composition, are among those with the strongest expression change. However, the revealed phenomenon is not limited to them. There is no or very weak relationship between protein sequence divergence and mutual coexpression rank. Also, generally there is no relationship between the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitutions and coexpression rank. This relationship is tangible only within evolutionarily labile gene families. These results indicate that despite of a similar biochemical function of orthologs reflected in the conserved protein sequence, the physiological (systemic) context of this function can be changed. Also, these results suggest that gene biochemical function and its physiological role in the organism can evolve independently.Gene 08/2012; 509(2):201-5. DOI:10.1016/j.gene.2012.08.029 · 2.08 Impact Factor