Cell biology assessment of glucokinase mutations V62M and G72R in pancreatic beta-cells: evidence for cellular instability of catalytic activity.
ABSTRACT Mutations in the glucokinase (GK) gene cause defects in blood glucose homeostasis. In some cases (V62M and G72R), the phenotype cannot be explained by altered enzyme kinetics or protein instability. We used transient and stable expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) GK chimaeras in MIN6 beta-cells to study the phenotype defect of V62M and G72R. GK activity in lysates of MIN6 cell lines stably expressing wild-type or mutant GFP GK showed the expected affinity for glucose and response to pharmacological activators, indicating the expression of catalytically active enzymes. MIN6 cells stably expressing GFP V62M or GFP G72R had a lower GK activity-to-GK immunoreactivity ratio and GK activity-to-GK mRNA ratio but not GK immunoreactivity-to-GK mRNA ratio than wild-type GFP GK. Heterologous expression of liver 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (PFK2/FDP2) in cell lines increased GK activity for wild-type GK and V62M but not for G72R, whereas expression of liver GK regulatory protein (GKRP) increased GK activity for wild type but not V62M or G72R. Lack of interaction of these mutants with GKRP was also evident in hepatocyte transfections from the lack of nuclear accumulation. These results suggest that cellular loss of GK catalytic activity rather than impaired translation or enhanced protein degradation may account for the hyperglycemia in subjects with V62M and G72R mutations.
- SourceAvailable from: Juraj Stanik[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Heterozygous glucokinase (GCK) mutations cause a subtype of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (GCK-MODY). Over 600 GCK mutations have been reported of which ∼65% are missense. In many cases co-segregation has not been established and despite the importance of functional studies in ascribing pathogenicity for missense variants these have only been performed for <10% of mutations. The aim of this study was to determine the minimum prevalence of GCK-MODY amongst diabetic subjects in Slovakia by sequencing GCK in 100 Slovakian probands with a phenotype consistent with GCK-MODY and to explore the pathogenicity of identified variants through family and functional studies. Twenty-two mutations were identified in 36 families (17 missense) of which 7 (I110N, V200A, N204D, G258R, F419S, c.580-2A>C, c.1113-1114delGC) were novel. Parental DNA was available for 22 probands (covering 14/22 mutations) and co-segregation established in all cases. Bioinformatic analysis predicted all missense mutations to be damaging. Nine (I110N, V200A, N204D, G223S, G258R, F419S, V244G, L315H, I436N) mutations were functionally evaluated. Basic kinetic analysis explained pathogenicity for 7 mutants which showed reduced glucokinase activity with relative activity indices (RAI) between 0.6 to <0.001 compared to wild-type GCK (1.0). For the remaining 2 mutants additional molecular mechanisms were investigated. Differences in glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP) -mediated-inhibition of GCK were observed for both L315H & I436N when compared to wild type (IC(50) 14.6±0.1 mM & 20.3±1.6 mM vs.13.3±0.1 mM respectively [p<0.03]). Protein instability as assessed by thermal lability studies demonstrated that both L315H and I436N show marked thermal instability compared to wild-type GCK (RAI at 55°C 8.8±0.8% & 3.1±0.4% vs. 42.5±3.9% respectively [p<0.001]). The minimum prevalence of GCK-MODY amongst Slovakian patients with diabetes was 0.03%. In conclusion, we have identified 22 GCK mutations in 36 Slovakian probands and demonstrate that combining family, bioinformatic and functional studies can aid the interpretation of variants identified by molecular diagnostic screening.PLoS ONE 04/2012; 7(4):e34541. · 3.53 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We investigated how glycerol, urea, glucose and a GKA influence kinetics and stability of wild-type and mutant GK. Glycerol and glucose stabilized GK additively. Glycerol barely affected the TF spectra of all GKs but decreased k(cat), glucose S(0.5) and K(D) values and ATP K(M) while leaving cooperativity unchanged. Glycerol sensitized all GKs to GKA as shown by TF. Glucose increased TF of GKs without influence of glycerol on the effect. Glycerol and GKA affected kinetics and binding additively. The activation energies for thermal denaturation of GK were a function of glucose with K(D)s of 3 and 1mM without and with glycerol, respectively. High urea denatured wild type GK reversibly at 20 and 60°C and urea treatment of irreversibly heat denatured GK allowed refolding as demonstrated by TF including glucose response. We concluded: Glycerol stabilizes GK indirectly without changing the folding structure of the apoenzyme, by restructuring the surface water of the protein, whereas glucose stabilizes GK directly by binding to its substrate site and inducing a compact conformation. Glucose or glycerol (alone or combined) is unable to prevent irreversible heat denaturation above 40°C. However, urea denatures GK reversibly even at 60°C by binding to the protein backbone and directly interacting with hydrophobic side chains. It prevents irreversible aggregation allowing complete refolding when urea is removed. This study establishes the foundation for exploring numerous instability mutants among the more than 600 variant GKs causing diabetes in animals and humans.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 03/2012; 1824(5):769-84. · 4.66 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: GCK-MODY, dominantly inherited mild fasting hyperglycemia, has been associated with >600 different mutations in the glucokinase (GK)-encoding gene (GCK). When expressed as recombinant pancreatic proteins, some mutations result in enzymes with normal/near-normal catalytic properties. The molecular mechanism(s) of GCK-MODY due to these mutations has remained elusive. Here, we aimed to explore the molecular mechanisms for two such catalytically 'normal' GCK mutations (S263P and G264S) in the F260-L270 loop of GK. When stably overexpressed in HEK293 cells and MIN6 β-cells, the S263P- and G264S-encoded mutations generated misfolded proteins with an increased rate of degradation (S263P>G264S) by the protein quality control machinery, and a propensity to self-associate (G264S>S263P) and form dimers (SDS resistant) and aggregates (partly Triton X-100 insoluble), as determined by pulse-chase experiments and subcellular fractionation. Thus, the GCK-MODY mutations S263P and G264S lead to protein misfolding causing destabilization, cellular dimerization/aggregation and enhanced rate of degradation. In silico predicted conformational changes of the F260-L270 loop structure are considered to mediate the dimerization of both mutant proteins by a domain swapping mechanism. Thus, similar properties may represent the molecular mechanisms for additional unexplained GCK-MODY mutations, and may also contribute to the disease mechanism in other previously characterized GCK-MODY inactivating mutations.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 07/2012; 1822(11):1705-15. · 4.66 Impact Factor