Article

Interventions to enhance medication adherence in chronic medical conditions - A systematic review

Division of General Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA.
Archives of Internal Medicine (Impact Factor: 13.25). 04/2007; 167(6):540-50. DOI: 10.1001/archinte.167.6.540
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Approximately 20% to 50% of patients are not adherent to medical therapy. This review was performed to summarize, categorize, and estimate the effect size (ES) of interventions to improve medication adherence in chronic medical conditions.
Randomized controlled trials published from January 1967 to September 2004 were eligible if they described 1 or more unconfounded interventions intended to enhance adherence with self-administered medications in the treatment of chronic medical conditions. Trials that reported at least 1 measure of medication adherence and 1 clinical outcome, with at least 80% follow-up during 6 months, were included. Study characteristics and results for adherence and clinical outcomes were extracted. In addition, ES was calculated for each outcome.
Among 37 eligible trials (including 12 informational, 10 behavioral, and 15 combined informational, behavioral, and/or social investigations), 20 studies reported a significant improvement in at least 1 adherence measure. Adherence increased most consistently with behavioral interventions that reduced dosing demands (3 of 3 studies, large ES [0.89-1.20]) and those involving monitoring and feedback (3 of 4 studies, small to large ES [0.27-0.81]). Adherence also improved in 6 multisession informational trials (small to large ES [0.35-1.13]) and 8 combined interventions (small to large ES [absolute value, 0.43-1.20]). Eleven studies (4 informational, 3 behavioral, and 4 combined) demonstrated improvement in at least 1 clinical outcome, but effects were variable (very small to large ES [0.17-3.41]) and not consistently related to changes in adherence.
Several types of interventions are effective in improving medication adherence in chronic medical conditions, but few significantly affected clinical outcomes.

Full-text

Available from: Xiaomei Yao, Apr 15, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
130 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Diabetes is a chronic condition which requires many patients to use medications for the remainder of their lives. While this regimen is demanding, little research has been done on the experiences individuals have with diabetes medication use and the continuity of use, especially patients from rural areas of Tanzania. This study explores the lived experiences of diabetes medication use and the continuity of use among adult diabetes patients from rural communities with limited access to diabetes medicines. Methods We conducted 19 in-depth interviews to explore patients’ experiences with diabetes medication use and the continuity of use. We employed the 5As of access to care to situate the behavioral practices surrounding diabetes medication use in the study settings. The data analysis followed grounded theory principles, and was conducted with the help of NVivo 9. Results Study participants expressed positive attitudes toward the use of diabetes medicines, but also concerns about affordability. The patients employed two main strategies for dealing with the cost. The first was to increase their available funds by spending less money on family needs, selling household property, asking family and friends for money, or borrowing cash. They also reported sourcing medicines from pharmacies to save on consultation and laboratory costs. Second, participants reported using less than the recommended dosage or skipping doses, and sharing medicines. The geographic accessibility of diabetes service providers, the availability of medication, and the organization of the diabetes services were also cited as barriers to taking medications and to using them continuously. Conclusions The strategies employed by the people in this study illustrate their resilience in the face of poverty and failing health care systems. More comprehensive strategies are therefore needed to encourage consistent medication use among people with chronic conditions. These strategies could include the reduction of prices by pharmaceuticals, the strengthening of community risk-pooling mechanisms and sustained health campaigns aimed at patients and the community.
    BMC Health Services Research 03/2015; 15(1). DOI:10.1186/s12913-015-0768-5 · 1.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Patient adherence and persistence is important to improve outcomes in chronic conditions, including inflammatory and immunologic (I&I) diseases. Patient programs that aim at improving medication adherence or persistence play an essential role in optimizing care. This meta-analysis assessed the effectiveness of patient programs in the therapeutic area of I&I diseases. A global systematic literature review was conducted with inclusion criteria of: patient programs in I&I diseases; published in English language between January 2008 and September 2013; and reporting measures of adherence or persistence, including medication possession ratio >80% and persistence rate. A meta-analysis was performed using a random effects model. Subgroup analyses based on the type of program was performed whenever feasible. Of 67 studies reviewed for eligibility, a total of 17 studies qualified for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Overall, patient programs increased adherence (odds ratio [OR]=2.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.68-3.64, P<0.00001) as compared with standard of care. Combination patient programs that used both informational and behavioral strategies were superior in improving adherence (OR=3.68, 95% CI=2.20-6.16, P<0.00001) compared with programs that used only informational (OR=2.16, 95% CI=1.36-3.44, P=0.001) or only behavioral approaches (OR=1.85, 95% CI=1.00-3.45, P=0.05). Additionally, patients were more likely to be persistent (OR=2.26, 95% CI=1.16-4.39, P=0.02) in the intervention group as compared with the control group. Persistence (in days) was significantly (P=0.007) longer, by 42 additional days, in the intervention group than in the control group. Patient programs can significantly improve adherence as well as persistence in the therapeutic area of I&I diseases. Programs employing a multimodal approach are more effective in improving adherence than programs with informational or behavioral strategies alone. This in turn may improve patient outcomes.
    Patient Preference and Adherence 01/2015; 9:435-48. DOI:10.2147/PPA.S77053 · 1.49 Impact Factor