Y-chromosome evidence suggests a common paternal heritage of Austro-Asiatic populations

Molecular Anthropology Group, Biological Anthropology Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Hubsiguda, Hyderabad, India. <>
BMC Evolutionary Biology (Impact Factor: 3.37). 02/2007; 7(1):47. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-7-47
Source: PubMed


The Austro-Asiatic linguistic family, which is considered to be the oldest of all the families in India, has a substantial presence in Southeast Asia. However, the possibility of any genetic link among the linguistic sub-families of the Indian Austro-Asiatics on the one hand and between the Indian and the Southeast Asian Austro-Asiatics on the other has not been explored till now. Therefore, to trace the origin and historic expansion of Austro-Asiatic groups of India, we analysed Y-chromosome SNP and STR data of the 1222 individuals from 25 Indian populations, covering all the three branches of Austro-Asiatic tribes, viz. Mundari, Khasi-Khmuic and Mon-Khmer, along with the previously published data on 214 relevant populations from Asia and Oceania.
Our results suggest a strong paternal genetic link, not only among the subgroups of Indian Austro-Asiatic populations but also with those of Southeast Asia. However, maternal link based on mtDNA is not evident. The results also indicate that the haplogroup O-M95 had originated in the Indian Austro-Asiatic populations ~65,000 yrs BP (95% C.I. 25,442-132,230) and their ancestors carried it further to Southeast Asia via the Northeast Indian corridor. Subsequently, in the process of expansion, the Mon-Khmer populations from Southeast Asia seem to have migrated and colonized Andaman and Nicobar Islands at a much later point of time.
Our findings are consistent with the linguistic evidence, which suggests that the linguistic ancestors of the Austro-Asiatic populations have originated in India and then migrated to Southeast Asia.

Download full-text


Available from: Banrida Langstieh, Oct 28, 2015
1 Follower
43 Reads
  • Source
    • "In fact, the Han Chinese , who are believed historically to have origins in the Central Plain of China, contain genetic components related to both eastern and western Eurasia in paternal and maternal lineages (Wen et al., 2004a; Yao et al., 2002; Zhong et al., 2010a). Analysis of Y chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have shown that the haplogroups of the present day Han Chinese mostly can be traced to a southern origin (Kumar et al., 2007; Li et al., 2008; Rootsi et al., 2007; Shi et al., 2005; 2008; Su et al., 1999; Zhong et al., 2010b), as in other East Asians, haplogroup O has the highest frequency in the Han Chinese populations (Wen et al., 2004a; Zhong et al., 2010a). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ObjectivesY chromosome haplogroup Q1a1 is found almost only in Han Chinese populations. However, it has not been found in ancient Han Chinese samples until now. Thus, the origin of haplogroup Q1a1 in Han Chinese is still obscure. This study attempts to provide answer to this question, and to uncover the origin and paternal genetic structure of the ancestors of the Han Chinese.Methods Eighty-nine ancient human remains that were excavated from the presumed geographic source of the Han Chinese and dated to approximately 3,000 years ago were treated by the amelogenin gene polymerase chain reaction test, to determine their sex. Then, Y chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms were subsequently analyzed from the samples detected as male.ResultsSamples from 27 individuals were successfully amplified. Their haplotypes could be attributed to haplogroups N, O*, O2a, O3a, and Q1a1. Analyses showed that the assigned haplogroup of each sample is correlated to the suspected social status and observed burial custom associated with the sample.Conclusions The origins of the observed haplotypes and their distribution in present day Han Chinese and in the samples suggest that haplogroup Q1a1 was probably introduced into the Han Chinese population approximately 3,000 years ago. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Human Biology 08/2014; 26(6). DOI:10.1002/ajhb.22604 · 1.70 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Malay Muslims displayed the highest frequency (52%) for haplogroup K, while Cape Indian Muslims demonstrated a high frequency for haplogroup O (38%) and H1 (17%). Haplogroup K is distributed throughout Asia having a substantial presence in East Asia (Basu et al.; 2003; Kumar et al., 2007). Haplogroup O characterises a major Y-chromosome lineage in East Asia and represents 80-90% of Y-chromosomes in Southeast and East Asia, with high frequencies observed in Indian populations (Underhill, 2004; Wells, 2007; Debnath et al., 2011). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The earliest Cape Muslims were brought to the Cape (Cape Town - South Africa) from Africa and Asia from 1652 to 1834. They were part of an involuntary migration of slaves, political prisoners and convicts, and they contributed to the ethnic diversity of the present Cape Muslim population of South Africa. The history of the Cape Muslims has been well documented and researched however no in-depth genetic studies have been undertaken. The aim of the present study was to determine the respective African, Asian and European contributions to the mtDNA (maternal) and Y-chromosomal (paternal) gene pool of the Cape Muslim population, by analyzing DNA samples of 100 unrelated Muslim males born in the Cape Metropolitan area. A panel of six mtDNA and eight Y-chromosome SNP markers were screened using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP). Overall admixture estimates for the maternal line indicated Asian (0.4168) and African mtDNA (0.4005) as the main contributors. The admixture estimates for the paternal line, however, showed a predominance of the Asian contribution (0.7852). The findings are in accordance with historical data on the origins of the early Cape Muslims.
    Genetics and Molecular Biology 07/2013; 36(2):167-76. DOI:10.1590/S1415-47572013005000019 · 1.20 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "In recent years, extensive studies of the Y-chromosome lineages in East Asian populations have been conducted and found that the dominant haplogroups O-M175, D-M174, C-M130, and N-M231 in East Asian populations all have a southern origin [1]–[8]. Among these East Asian Y-chromosome lineages, D-M174 represents the earliest northward migration, beginning from the southern part of East Asia of what is now mainland Southeast Asia and southern China about 50–60 kya [5]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Y-chromosome haplogroup N-M231 (Hg N) is distributed widely in eastern and central Asia, Siberia, as well as in eastern and northern Europe. Previous studies suggested a counterclockwise prehistoric migration of Hg N from eastern Asia to eastern and northern Europe. However, the root of this Y chromosome lineage and its detailed dispersal pattern across eastern Asia are still unclear. We analyzed haplogroup profiles and phylogeographic patterns of 1,570 Hg N individuals from 20,826 males in 359 populations across Eurasia. We first genotyped 6,371 males from 169 populations in China and Cambodia, and generated data of 360 Hg N individuals, and then combined published data on 1,210 Hg N individuals from Japanese, Southeast Asian, Siberian, European and Central Asian populations. The results showed that the sub-haplogroups of Hg N have a distinct geographical distribution. The highest Y-STR diversity of the ancestral Hg N sub-haplogroups was observed in the southern part of mainland East Asia, and further phylogeographic analyses supports an origin of Hg N in southern China. Combined with previous data, we propose that the early northward dispersal of Hg N started from southern China about 21 thousand years ago (kya), expanding into northern China 12-18 kya, and reaching further north to Siberia about 12-14 kya before a population expansion and westward migration into Central Asia and eastern/northern Europe around 8.0-10.0 kya. This northward migration of Hg N likewise coincides with retreating ice sheets after the Last Glacial Maximum (22-18 kya) in mainland East Asia.
    PLoS ONE 06/2013; 8(6):e66102. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0066102 · 3.23 Impact Factor
Show more