Aleman, A., Sommer, I. E. & Kahn, R. S. Efficacy of slow repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of resistant auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. J. Clin. Psychiatry 63, 416-421

BCN Neuroimaging Center, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, the Netherlands.
The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 5.5). 04/2007; 68(3):416-21. DOI: 10.4088/JCP.v68n0310
Source: PubMed


Slow repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), at a frequency of 1 Hz, has been proposed as a treatment for auditory hallucinations. Several studies have now been reported regarding the efficacy of TMS treatment, but results were inconsistent. Therefore, meta-analytic integration of the published trials is needed to evaluate the prospects of this new treatment.
A literature search was conducted using PubMed and Web of Science for the years 1966 until February 2006. We used the search terms transcranial magnetic stimulation, TMS, rTMS, and hallucination*.
From 15 treatment studies published since 1999, ten were sham-controlled trials and provided sufficient valid information to be included. All studies targeted the left tem-poroparietal cortex using 1 Hz rTMS.
Standardized mean gain effect sizes of real rTMS versus sham rTMS were computed based on pretreatment-posttreatment comparisons (computed from mean and SD values or t or F statistics).
After calculation of treatment gain on hallucination ratings using standardized mean differences (sham vs. active rTMS), a mean weighted effect size was computed in the random effects model. We observed a significant mean weighted effect size for rTMS versus sham across the 10 studies, involving 212 patients, d = 0.76 (95% CI = 0.36 to 1.17). When only studies were included that used continuous stimulation (9 studies), the mean effect size increased to d = 0.88 and heterogeneity disappeared. There was no significant effect of rTMS on a composite index of general psychotic symptoms.
The results of this meta-analysis provide evidence for the efficacy of rTMS as an intervention that selectively alters neurobiologic factors underlying auditory hallucinations.

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    • "tions yet ) that this is indeed a promising strategy . Three meta - analyses—one on the effects of TMS in diminishing auditory hallucinations and two on the TMS use for treating negative symptoms—support that TMS is a valuable intervention for treating schizophrenia symptoms ( Aleman et al . , 2007 ; Freitas et al . , 2009 ; Shi et al . , 2014 ) . Aleman et al . ( 2007 ) have found substantial evidence for the applicability of TMS for the treatment of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia but no significant effect on a general index of psychotic symptoms after reviewing 10 studies . Nonetheless , Freitas et al . ( 2009 ) and Shi et al . ( 2014 ) have found significant effects of TMS on decreasing n"
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