Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Fat Mass in a Large Cohort of Children

School of Oral and Dental Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, England, United Kingdom
PLoS Medicine (Impact Factor: 14.43). 04/2007; 4(3):e97. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0040097
Source: PubMed


Previous studies have been unable to characterise the association between physical activity and obesity, possibly because most relied on inaccurate measures of physical activity and obesity.
We carried out a cross sectional analysis on 5,500 12-year-old children enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Total physical activity and minutes of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were measured using the Actigraph accelerometer. Fat mass and obesity (defined as the top decile of fat mass) were measured using the Lunar Prodigy dual x-ray emission absorptiometry scanner. We found strong negative associations between MVPA and fat mass that were unaltered after adjustment for total physical activity. We found a strong negative dose-response association between MVPA and obesity. The odds ratio for obesity in adjusted models between top and the bottom quintiles of minutes of MVPA was 0.03 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.01-0.13, p-value for trend <0.0001) in boys and 0.36 (95% CI 0.17-0.74, p-value for trend = 0.006) in girls.
We demonstrated a strong graded inverse association between physical activity and obesity that was stronger in boys. Our data suggest that higher intensity physical activity may be more important than total activity.

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Available from: Jonathan CK Wells, Oct 04, 2015
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    • "well within the recommended ACSM range. Given the benefits that exercising within this range has been shown to elicit [39-41], it is crucial to identify how individuals can be encouraged to work at this intensity. The current study examined the exercise intensity of self-selected exercise in adolescents, and although a different population from previous studies, results indicated that self-selected exercise intensity was within the recommended range of between 50-85% "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Positive affective responses can lead to improved adherence to exercise. This study sought to examine the affective responses and exercise intensity of self-selected exercise in adolescent girls. Methods An observational study where twenty seven females (Age M = 14.6 ± 0.8 years) completed three 20-minute exercise sessions (2 self-selected and 1 prescribed intensity) and a graded exercise test. The intensity of the prescribed session was matched to the first self-selected session. Intensity, affective responses and ratings of perceived exertion were recorded throughout the sessions and differences examined. Repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted to examine differences. Results There were no significant differences in intensity between the prescribed and self-selected sessions, but affective responses were significantly more positive (p < .01) during the self-selected session. Ratings of perceived exertion were significantly lower (p < .01) during the self-selected session than the prescribed session. On average participants worked at 72% V˙O2 peak; well within the intensity recommended by the American College of Sports Medicine. Conclusion Even though the intensity did not differ between the self-selected and prescribed sessions, there was a significant impact on affective responses, with more positive affective responses being elicited in the self-selected session. This highlights the importance of autonomy and self-paced exercise for affective responses and may have potential long-term implications for adherence.
    10/2014; 6(35). DOI:10.1186/2052-1847-6-35
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    • "Observational studies using accelerometry data have shown that a 10 to 20 min increase in MVPA is associated with lower BMI and waist circumference [21–23]. Therefore, it was estimated that a sample size of 218 pupils per study arm would be required to detect a difference of 10 minutes in the change from baseline in average daily minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) between intervention and control groups with 90% power at p < 0.05. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Exergaming has been proposed as an innovative method for physical activity promotion. However, large effectiveness studies are rare. In January 2011, dance mat systems were introduced in secondary schools in two districts in England with the aim of promoting an innovative opportunity for physical activity. The aim of this natural experiment was to examine the effect of introducing the dance mat exergaming systems on physical activity and health-related outcomes in 11–13 year old students using a non-randomised controlled design and mixed methods. Methods Participants were recruited from five schools in intervention districts (n = 280) and two schools in neighbouring control districts (n = 217). Data on physical activity (accelerometer), anthropometrics (weight, BMI and percentage of body fat), aerobic fitness (20-m multistage shuttle run test), health-related quality of life (Kidscreen questionnaire), self-efficacy (children’s physical activity self-efficacy survey), school attendance, focus groups with children and interviews with teachers were collected at baseline and approximately 12 months follow-up. Results There was a negative intervention effect on total physical activity (-65.4 cpm CI: -12.6 to -4.7), and light and sedentary physical activity when represented as a percentage of wear time (Light: -2.3% CI: -4.5 to 0.2; Sedentary: 3.3% CI: 0.7 to 5.9). However, compliance with accelerometers at follow-up was poor. There was a significant positive intervention effect on weight (-1.7 kg, 95% CI: -2.9 to -0.4), BMI (-0.9 kg/m2, 95% CI: -1.3 to -0.4) and percentage of body fat (-2.2%, 95% CI: -4.2 to -0.2). There was also evidence of improvement in some health-related quality of life parameters: psychological well-being (2.5, 95% CI: 0.1 to 4.8) and autonomy and parent relation (4.2, 95% CI: 1.4 to 7.0). Conclusions The implementation of a dance mat exergaming scheme was associated with improvement in anthropometric measurements and parameters of health-related quality of life. However, the mechanisms of these benefits are unclear as there was insufficient data from physical activity to draw robust conclusions. Qualitative findings suggest that there was declining support for the initiative over time, meaning that potential benefits may not have been achieved.
    BMC Public Health 09/2014; 14(1):951. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-951 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    • "Only few studies in children have used dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) instead of proxy measures for body fat such as skinfolds and body mass index (BMI) [12-17]. Furthermore, earlier studies have been inconsistent in adjusting for dietary behaviors known to affect childhood overweight, such as consumption of breakfast and sugar-sweetened beverages [12-14,16]. Therefore, confounding by these factors cannot be ruled out. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Childhood overweight and obesity is a major public health concern. Knowledge on modifiable risk factors is needed to design effective intervention programs. This study aimed to assess associations of children¿s sedentary behaviors (television viewing and computer game use) and physical activity behaviors (sports participation, outdoor play, and active transport to/from school) with three indicators of body fat, i.e., percent fat mass, body mass index (BMI) standard deviation scores, and weight status (normal weight, overweight).Methods Cross-sectional data from 5913 6-year-old ethnically diverse children were analyzed. Children¿s weight and height were objectively measured and converted to BMI. Weight status was defined according to age- and sex-specific cut-off points of the International Obesity Task Force. BMI standard deviation scores were created, based on Dutch reference growth curves. Fat mass was measured my dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Sedentary and physical activity behaviors were assessed by parent-reported questionnaires. Series of logistic and linear regression analyses were performed, controlling for confounders (i.e., socio-demographic factors, family lifestyle factors, and other sedentary behaviors and physical activity behaviors).ResultsSports participation was inversely associated with fat mass (p < 0.001), even after adjustment for socio-demographic factors, family lifestyle factors, and other sedentary behaviors and physical activity behaviors. No other independent associations were observed.Conclusions The results of this study indicate that sports participation is inversely associated with percent body fat among ethnically diverse 6-year-old children. More research in varied populations including objective measurements and longitudinal designs are needed to confirm these current results.
    International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 08/2014; 11(1):96. DOI:10.1186/PREACCEPT-1946502959127020 · 4.11 Impact Factor
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