Patients with untreated obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea (OSAH) are predisposed to developing hypertension, and therapy with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) may reduce blood pressure (BP). The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of CPAP therapy on BP in patients with OSAH. We performed a comprehensive literature search up to July 2006 [Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), Cochrane controlled trials register (CCTR), and Database of Abstract and Reviews of Effect (DARE)] to identify clinical studies and systemic reviews that examined the impact of CPAP on BP. Studies were included if they (1) were randomized controlled trials with an appropriate control group, (2) included systolic and diastolic BP measurements before and after CPAP/control in patients with OSAH, and (3) contained adequate data to perform a meta-analysis. To calculate pooled results, studies were weighted by inverse variances, with either a fixed or a random effects model used depending on the presence of heterogeneity (assessed with Q test). Ten studies met our inclusion criteria (587 patients): three studies were crossover (149 patients) and seven were parallel in design. Seven studies (421 patients) used 24-h ambulatory BP and three used one-time measurements. Two studies were of patients with heart failure (41 patients). Overall, the effects of CPAP were modest and not statistically significant; CPAP (compared to control) reduced systolic BP (SBP) by 1.38 mmHg (95% CI: 3.6 to -0.88, p = 0.23) and diastolic BP (DBP) by 1.52 mmHg (CI: 3.1 to -0.07; p = 0.06). Six of the trials studied more severe OSAH (mean AHI > 30/h, 313 patients); in these six trials, CPAP reduced SBP by 3.03 mmHg (CI 6.7 to -0.61; p = 0.10) and DBP by 2.03 mmHg (CI: 4.1 to -0.002; p = 0.05). There was a trend for SBP reduction to be associated with CPAP compliance. In unselected patients with sleep apnea, CPAP has very modest effects on BP. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that certain subgroups of patients may have more robust responses-this may include patients with more severe OSAH or difficult-to-control hypertension. Future randomized controlled trials in this area should potentially concentrate on these subgroups of patients.
"In this study, the impact of statin in reducing blood pressure (around 6 mmHg mean difference) is clinically relevant. This is particularly true in view of the limited impact of CPAP treatment in reducing BP [40, 41]. Indeed, among patients treated for hypertension, even 1 to 2 mmHg mean differences in office blood pressure are already associated with reduced odds of stroke and major cardiovascular events [42–44]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rationale:
Accumulated evidence implicates sympathetic activation as inducing oxidative stress and systemic inflammation, which in turn lead to hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, and atherosclerosis in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Statins through their pleiotropic properties may modify inflammation, lipid profile, and cardiovascular outcomes in OSA.
This multicenter, randomized, double-blind study compared the effects of atorvastatin 40 mg/day versus placebo over 12 weeks on endothelial function (the primary endpoint) measured by peripheral arterial tone (PAT). Secondary endpoints included office blood pressure (BP), early carotid atherosclerosis, arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV), and metabolic parameters.
51 severe OSA patients were randomized. Key demographics for the study population were age 54 ± 11 years, 21.6% female, and BMI 28.5 ± 4.5 kg/m(2). In intention to treat analysis, mean PAT difference between atorvastatin and placebo groups was 0.008 (-0.29; 0.28), P = 0.979. Total and LDL cholesterol significantly improved with atorvastatin. Systolic BP significantly decreased with atorvastatin (mean difference: -6.34 mmHg (-12.68; -0.01), P = 0.050) whereas carotid atherosclerosis and PWV were unchanged compared to the placebo group.
In OSA patients, 3 months of atorvastatin neither improved endothelial function nor reduced early signs of atherosclerosis although it lowered blood pressure and improved lipid profile. This trial is registered with NCT00669695.
Mediators of Inflammation 08/2014; 2014(5):423120. DOI:10.1155/2014/423120 · 3.24 Impact Factor
"A now very sizable body of literature implicates aldosterone as an important mediator of incident hypertension and severity of hypertension, and, in particular, a common cause of resistance to antihypertensive treatment [12–14]. CNM show an adrenal disorder characterized by chronic overproduction of aldosterone that persists even in the reduced plasma renin activity . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, we aimed to investigate the preventive effects of 4-hydroxychalcone (4HCH) on resistant hypertension. We used cryptochrome-null mice, which characteristically show high plasma aldosterone levels, inflammation, and renal injury. The cryptochrome-null mice received high-salt treatment and were treated orally with 4HCH 10 mg/kg, 4HCH 20 mg/kg, and 4HCH 40 mg/kg, respectively. The salt administration in cryptochrome-null mice is able to induce an increase in systolic pressure which is associated with hyperaldosteronism, inflammation, and kidney injury. Treatment with 40 mg/kg 4HCH reduced systolic hypertension, serum IL-1 β , and TNF- α levels and suppressed the activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF- κ B) and renal injury. The impact of 4HCH on the hyperaldosteronism, inflammation, and kidney injury provides new insights for future development of therapeutic strategies in resistant hypertension.
BioMed Research International 06/2014; 2014:603415. DOI:10.1155/2014/603415 · 2.71 Impact Factor
"Data from some of the key studies is summarized in Table 1. Two meta-analyses on the effect of CPAP on HTN showed modest effects [53, 54]. In the meta-analysis by Haentjens et al., 572 patients from 12 randomized controlled trials showed a net decrease of 1.69 mmHg in 24-hr mean ABP (95% CI, −2.69 to −0.69) . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypertension (HTN) is a modifiable, highly prevalent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and renal dysfunction worldwide. In the United States, HTN affects one in three adults, contributes to one out of every seven deaths and to nearly half of all cardiovascular disease-related deaths. HTN is considered resistant when the blood pressure remains above goal despite lifestyle modification and administration of three antihypertensive agents of different classes including a diuretic. Large population-based studies have suggested that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a risk factor for resistant HTN. The mechanism proposed is a pattern of intermittent hypoxia associated with hyperaldosteronism, increased sympathetic tone, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation. In this review we discuss the association between OSA and resistant HTN, the physiologic mechanisms linking OSA with resistant HTN, and the effect of continuous positive airway pressure therapy (CPAP) on blood pressure in patients with resistant HTN. While the reduction in blood pressure with CPAP is usually modest in patients with OSA, a decrease of only a few mmHg in blood pressure can significantly reduce cardiovascular risk. Patients presenting to a center specializing in management of hypertension should be screened and treated for OSA as a potentially modifiable risk factor.
International Journal of Hypertension 05/2013; 2013:193010. DOI:10.1155/2013/193010
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