TRIM25 RING-finger E3 ubiquitin ligase is essential for RIG-I-mediated antiviral activity.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics and Tumor Virology Division, New England Primate Research Center, Harvard Medical School, 1 Pine Hill Drive, Southborough, Massachusetts 01772, USA.
Nature (Impact Factor: 42.35). 05/2007; 446(7138):916-920. DOI: 10.1038/nature05732
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I; also called DDX58) is a cytosolic viral RNA receptor that interacts with MAVS (also called VISA, IPS-1 or Cardif) to induce type I interferon-mediated host protective innate immunity against viral infection. Furthermore, members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family, which contain a cluster of a RING-finger domain, a B box/coiled-coil domain and a SPRY domain, are involved in various cellular processes, including cell proliferation and antiviral activity. Here we report that the amino-terminal caspase recruitment domains (CARDs) of RIG-I undergo robust ubiquitination induced by TRIM25 in mammalian cells. The carboxy-terminal SPRY domain of TRIM25 interacts with the N-terminal CARDs of RIG-I; this interaction effectively delivers the Lys 63-linked ubiquitin moiety to the N-terminal CARDs of RIG-I, resulting in a marked increase in RIG-I downstream signalling activity. The Lys 172 residue of RIG-I is critical for efficient TRIM25-mediated ubiquitination and for MAVS binding, as well as the ability of RIG-I to induce antiviral signal transduction. Furthermore, gene targeting demonstrates that TRIM25 is essential not only for RIG-I ubiquitination but also for RIG-I-mediated interferon- production and antiviral activity in response to RNA virus infection. Thus, we demonstrate that TRIM25 E3 ubiquitin ligase induces the Lys 63-linked ubiquitination of RIG-I, which is crucial for the cytosolic RIG-I signalling pathway to elicit host antiviral innate immunity.

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    ABSTRACT: Antiviral immunity is initiated upon host recognition of viral products via non-self molecular patterns known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Such recognition initiates signaling cascades that induce intracellular innate immune defenses and an inflammatory response that facilitates development of the acquired immune response. The retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) protein family are key cytoplasmic pathogen recognition receptors that are implicated in the recognition of viruses across genera and virus families, including functioning as major sensors of RNA viruses, and promoting recognition of some DNA viruses. RIG-I, the charter member of the RLR family, is activated upon binding to PAMP RNA. Activated RIG-I signals by interacting with the adapter protein MAVS leading to a signaling cascade that activates the transcription factors IRF3 and NF-κB. These actions induce the expression of antiviral gene products and the production of type I and III interferons that lead to an antiviral state in the infected cell and surrounding tissue. RIG-I signaling is essential for the control of infection by many RNA viruses. Recently, RIG-I crosstalk with other pathogen recognition receptors and components of the inflammasome has been described. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge regarding the role of RIG-I in recognition of a variety of virus families and its role in programming the adaptive immune response through cross-talk with parallel arms of the innate immune system, including how RIG-I can be leveraged for antiviral therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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    ABSTRACT: TRIM25 is a member of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family and has been implicated in the regulation of innate immune signaling via the RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene-I) pathway for antiviral defense. As the essential first step towards the structural and functional characterization of the TRIM25/RIG-I interaction, the backbone resonance of the PRYSPRY domain of TRIM25 is assigned here based on triple-resonance experiments using uniformly [(2)H, (13)C, (15)N]-labeled protein.
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    ABSTRACT: Many RNA viruses are detected by retinoic acid-inducible gene i (RIG-I), a cytoplasmic sensor that triggers an antiviral response upon binding non-self-RNA that contains a stretch of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) bearing a base-paired 5′ ppp nucleotide. To gain insight into how RIG-I discriminates between self-RNA and non-self-RNA, we used duplexes whose complementary bottom strand contained both ribo- and deoxynucleotides. These duplexes were examined for their binding to RIG-I and their relative abilities to stimulate ATPase activity, to induce RIG-I dimerization on the duplex, and to induce beta interferon (IFN-β) expression. We show that the chemical nature of the bottom strand is not critical for RIG-I binding. However, two key ribonucleotides, at positions 2 and 5 on the bottom strand, are minimally required for the RIG-I ATPase activity, which is necessary but not sufficient for IFN-β stimulation. We find that duplexes with shorter stretches of dsRNA, as model self-RNAs, bind less stably to RIG-I but nevertheless have an enhanced ability to stimulate the ATPase. Moreover, ATPase activity promotes RIG-I recycling on RIG-I/dsRNA complexes. Since pseudo-self-RNAs bind to RIG-I less stably, they are preferentially recycled by ATP hydrolysis that weakens the helicase domain binding of dsRNA. Our results suggest that one function of the ATPase is to restrict RIG-I signaling to its interaction with non-self-RNA. A model of how this discrimination occurs as a function of dsRNA length is presented.
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