Article

The May-Hegglin anomaly gene MYH9 is a negative regulator of platelet biogenesis modulated by the Rho-ROCK pathway.

Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA.
Blood (Impact Factor: 9.78). 08/2007; 110(1):171-9. DOI: 10.1182/blood-2007-02-071589
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The gene implicated in the May-Hegglin anomaly and related macrothrombocytopenias, MYH9, encodes myosin-IIA, a protein that enables morphogenesis in diverse cell types. Defective myosin-IIA complexes are presumed to perturb megakaryocyte (MK) differentiation or generation of proplatelets. We observed that Myh9(-/-) mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells differentiate into MKs that are fully capable of proplatelet formation (PPF). In contrast, elevation of myosin-IIA activity, by exogenous expression or by mimicking constitutive phosphorylation of its regulatory myosin light chain (MLC), significantly attenuates PPF. This effect occurs only in the presence of myosin-IIA and implies that myosin-IIA influences thrombopoiesis negatively. MLC phosphorylation in MKs is regulated by Rho-associated kinase (ROCK), and consistent with our model, ROCK inhibition enhances PPF. Conversely, expression of AV14, a constitutive form of the ROCK activator Rho, blocks PPF, and this effect is rescued by simultaneous expression of a dominant inhibitory MLC form. Hematopoietic transplantation studies in mice confirm that interference with the putative Rho-ROCK-myosin-IIA pathway selectively decreases the number of circulating platelets. Our studies unveil a key regulatory pathway for platelet biogenesis and hint at Sdf-1/CXCL12 as one possible extracellular mediator. The unexpected mechanism for Myh9-associated thrombocytopenia may lead to new molecular approaches to manipulate thrombopoiesis.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
95 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Non-muscle myosin II motor proteins (myosin IIA, myosin IIB, and myosin IIC) belong to a class of molecular motor proteins that are known to transduce cellular free-energy into biological work more efficiently than man-made combustion engines. Nature has given a single myosin II motor protein for lower eukaryotes and multiple for mammals but none for plants in order to provide impetus for their life. These specialized nanomachines drive cellular activities necessary for embryogenesis, organogenesis, and immunity. However, these multifunctional myosin II motor proteins are believed to go awry due to unknown reasons and contribute for the onset and progression of many autosomal-dominant disorders, cataract, deafness, infertility, cancer, kidney, neuronal, and inflammatory diseases. Many pathogens like HIV, Dengue, hepatitis C, and Lymphoma viruses as well as Salmonella and Mycobacteria are now known to take hostage of these dedicated myosin II motor proteins for their efficient pathogenesis. Even after four decades since their discovery, we still have a limited knowledge of how these motor proteins drive cell migration and cytokinesis. We need to enrich our current knowledge on these fundamental cellular processes and develop novel therapeutic strategies to fix mutated myosin II motor proteins in pathological conditions. This is the time to think how to relieve the hijacked myosins from pathogens in order to provide a renewed impetus for patients' life. Understanding how to steer these molecular motors in proliferating and differentiating stem cells will improve stem cell based-therapeutics development. Given the plethora of cellular activities non-muscle myosin motor proteins are involved in, their importance is apparent for human life.
    Frontiers in Chemistry 07/2014; 2:45.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Anagrelide represents a treatment option for essential thrombocythemia patients. It lowers platelet counts through inhibition of megakaryocyte maturation and polyploidization, although the basis for this effect remains unclear. Based on its rapid onset of action, we assessed whether, besides blocking megakaryopoiesis, anagrelide represses proplatelet formation (PPF) and aimed to clarify the underlying mechanisms. Exposure of cord blood-derived megakaryocytes to anagrelide during late stages of culture led to a dose- and time-dependent inhibition in PPF and reduced proplatelet complexity, which were independent of anagrelide-induced effect on megakaryocyte maturation. Whereas anagrelide was shown to phosphorylate cAMP-substrate VASP, two pharmacologic inhibitors of the cAMP pathway were completely unable to revert anagrelide-induced repression in megakaryopoiesis and PPF, suggesting these effects are unrelated to its ability to inhibit phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3. The reduction in thrombopoiesis was not the result of downregulation of transcription factors which coordinate PPF, while the myosin pathway was identified as a candidate target, as anagrelide was shown to phosphorylate myosin light chain and the PPF phenotype was partially rescued after inhibition of myosin activity with blebbistatin. The platelet-lowering effect of anagrelide results from impaired megakaryocyte maturation and reduced PPF, both of which are deregulated in essential thrombocythemia. These effects seem unrelated to PDE3 inhibition, which is responsible for anagrelide's cardiovascular side effects and antiplatelet activity. Further work on this field may lead to the potential development of drugs to treat thrombocytosis in myeloproliferative disorders with improved pharmacologic profile. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 01/2015; · 6.08 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bortezomib is a potent proteasome inhibitor that has been extensively used to treat multiple myeloma. One of the most common grade 3 adverse events is cyclic thrombocytopenia. In this study, we studied the mechanism by which bortezomib induces thrombocytopenia in a mouse model. After the intravenous administration of bortezomib (2.5 mg/kg) via tail vein, platelet counts significantly decreased on days 2–4 and recovered to the normal range on day 6. Bortezomib (2.5 mg/kg) injected into mice in vivo did not affect colony-forming-unit-megakaryocytes (CFU-Megs) or megakaryocytes in the bone marrow. However, proplatelet formation (PPF) significantly decreased on days 2 and 4, after bortezomib administration to mice. Meanwhile, CFU-Megs formation and the ploidy distribution of cultured megakaryocytes in vitro were not affected by bortezomib used at concentrations of ≤1 ng/ml. The PPF of megakaryocytes in vitro significantly decreased with 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 ng/ml bortezomib. Considering the bortezomib concentration in clinical studies, these data strongly suggest that decreased PPF activity induces thrombocytopenia. To elucidate the mechanism behind decreased PPF, Western blot was performed. Activated Rho expression increased after the incubation of murine platelets with bortezomib. Decreased PPF activity was cancelled by the addition of Y27632, a Rho kinase inhibitor, in vitro. Given that the Rho/Rho kinase pathway is a negative regulator of PPF, bortezomib increases activated Rho, inducing decreased PPF, which results in decreased platelet count.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    European Journal Of Haematology 04/2014; · 2.41 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
45 Downloads
Available from
May 21, 2014