Enhanced delivery of cell-penetrating peptide-peptide nucleic acid conjugates by endosomal disruption.
ABSTRACT Improvement of cellular uptake and cellular localization is still one of the main obstacles to the development of antisense-antigene therapeutics, including peptide nucleic acid (PNA). Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) such as Tat peptide and polyarginine have been widely used to improve the cellular uptake of PNA and other antisense agents. Cellular uptake of most CPP conjugates occurs mainly through endocytotic pathways, and most CPP conjugate is retained in the endosomal compartments of the cell. Several methods to induce endosome disruption have been shown to improve the bioavailability of CPP conjugates to the cytosol and/or nucleus by facilitating escape from the endosomal compartments. Here we describe protocols for the delivery of CPP-PNA conjugates to adherent cultured cells using photodynamic treatment (photochemical internalization), Ca2+ treatment or chloroquine treatment to potentiate the antisense effects of CPP-PNA conjugates through increased release of CPP conjugates into the cytoplasm. This protocol, consisting of CPP-mediated delivery assisted by an endosome-disruption agent, allows the delivery of the CPP-PNA conjugates to the nucleus and/or cytosol of cultured cells. The endosome-disruption treatment improves the nuclear antisense effects of CPP-PNA conjugates by up to two orders of magnitude using 24-hour delivery.
Article: Cell number and transfection volume dependent peptide nucleic acid antisense activity by cationic delivery methods.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Efficient intracellular delivery is essential for high activity of nucleic acids based therapeutics, including antisense agents. Several strategies have been developed and practically all rely on auxiliary transfection reagents such as cationic lipids, cationic polymers and cell penetrating peptides as complexing agents and carriers of the nucleic acids. However, uptake mechanisms remain rather poorly understood, and protocols always require optimization of transfection parameters. Considering that cationic transfection complexes bind to and thus may up-concentrate on the cell surface, we have now quantitatively compared the cellular activity (in the pLuc705 HeLa cell splice correction system) of PNA antisense oligomers using lipoplex delivery of cholesterol- and bisphosphonate-PNA conjugates, polyplex delivery via a PNA-polyethyleneimine conjugate and CPP delivery via a PNA-octaarginine conjugate upon varying the cell culture transfection volume (and cell density) at fixed PNA concentration. The results show that for all delivery modalities the cellular antisense activity increases (less than proportionally) with increasing volume (in some cases accompanied with increased toxicity), and that this effect is more pronounced at higher cell densities. These results emphasize that transfection efficacy using cationic carriers is critically dependent on parameters such as transfection volume and cell density, and that these must be taken into account when comparing different delivery regimes.Artificial DNA, PNA & XNA. 01/2012; 3(1):22-7.
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ABSTRACT: Double-helical RNA has become an attractive target for molecular recognition because many noncoding RNAs play important roles in the control of gene expression. Recently, we discovered that short peptide nucleic acids (PNA) bind strongly and sequence selectively to a homopurine tract of double-helical RNA via formation of a triple helix. Herein, we tested if the molecular recognition of RNA could be enhanced by α-guanidine modification of PNA. Our study was motivated by the discovery of Ly and co-workers that the guanidine modification greatly enhances the cellular delivery of PNA. Isothermal titration calorimetry showed that the guanidine-modified PNA (GPNA) had reduced affinity and sequence selectivity for triple-helical recognition of RNA. The data suggested that in contrast to unmodified PNA, which formed a 1:1 PNA-RNA triple helix, GPNA preferred a 2:1 GPNA-RNA triplex invasion complex. Nevertheless, promising results were obtained for recognition of biologically relevant double-helical RNA. Consistent with enhanced strand invasion ability, GPNA derived from d-arginine recognized the transactivation response element of HIV-1 with high affinity and sequence selectivity, presumably via Watson-Crick duplex formation. On the other hand, strong and sequence selective triple helices were formed by unmodified and nucelobase-modified PNA and the purine-rich strand of the bacterial A-site. These results suggest that appropriate chemical modifications of PNA may enhance molecular recognition of complex noncoding RNAs.Biochemistry 12/2011; 51(1):63-73. · 3.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) has become an extremely powerful tool in chemistry and biology. Although PNA recognizes single-stranded nucleic acids with exceptionally high affinity and sequence selectivity, there is considerable ongoing effort to further improve properties of PNA for both fundamental science and practical applications. The present paper discusses selected recent studies that improve on cellular uptake and binding of PNA to double-stranded DNA and RNA. The focus is on chemical modifications of PNA's backbone and heterocyclic nucleobases. The paper selects representative recent studies and does not attempt to provide comprehensive coverage of the broad and vibrant field of PNA modification.Journal of nucleic acids 01/2012; 2012:518162.