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Bush G, Shin LM. The multi-source interference task: an fMRI task that reliably activates the cingulo-frontal-parietal cognitive/attention network. Nat Protoc 1: 308-313

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
Nature Protocol (Impact Factor: 8.36). 02/2006; 1(1):308-13. DOI: 10.1038/nprot.2006.48
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In this protocol we describe how to perform the Multi-Source Interference Task (MSIT), a validated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task that reliably and robustly activates the cingulo-frontal-parietal cognitive/attention network (CFP network) within individual subjects. The MSIT can be used to (i) identify the cognitive/attention network in normal volunteers and (ii) test its integrity in people with neuropsychiatric disorders. It is simple to perform, can be completed in less than 15 min and is not language specific, making it appropriate for children, adults and the elderly. Since its validation, over 100 adults have performed the task. The MSIT produces a robust and temporally stable reaction time interference effect (range 200-350 ms), and single runs of the MSIT have produced CFP network activation in approximately 95% of tested subjects. The robust, reliable and temporally stable neuroimaging and performance data make the MSIT a useful task with which to study normal human cognition and psychiatric pathophysiology.

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    • "2.2. fMRI task: MSIT-Emotion Cognitive control of emotional information was assessed with the MSIT-Emotion (Fig. 1), an adaptation of the MSIT, a standard cognitive control paradigm that combines the Flanker (Eriksen and Eriksen, 1974) and Simon (Simon and Berbaum, 1990) effects to robustly activate the cingulo–frontal–parietal cognitive control network within individual subjects (Bush and Shin, 2006). In the MSIT, subjects see sets of three numbers (1, 2, or 3) and report the identity of the number that differs from the other two. "
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    ABSTRACT: LPFC dysfunction is a well-established neural impairment in schizophrenia and is associated with worse symptoms. However, how LPFC activation influences symptoms is unclear. Previous findings in healthy individuals demonstrate that lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) activation during cognitive control of emotional information predicts mood and behavior in response to interpersonal conflict, thus impairments in these processes may contribute to symptom exacerbation in schizophrenia. We investigated whether schizophrenia participants show LPFC deficits during cognitive control of emotional information, and whether these LPFC deficits prospectively predict changes in mood and symptoms following real-world interpersonal conflict. During fMRI, 23 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 24 healthy controls completed the Multi-Source Interference Task superimposed on neutral and negative pictures. Afterwards, schizophrenia participants completed a 21-day online daily-diary in which they rated the extent to which they experienced mood and schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms, as well as the occurrence and response to interpersonal conflict. Schizophrenia participants had lower dorsal LPFC activity (BA9) during cognitive control of task-irrelevant negative emotional information. Within schizophrenia participants, DLPFC activity during cognitive control of emotional information predicted changes in positive and negative moods on days following highly distressing interpersonal conflicts. Results have implications for understanding the specific role of LPFC in response to social stress in schizophrenia, and suggest that treatments targeting LPFC-mediated cognitive control of emotion could promote adaptive response to social stress in schizophrenia.
    Clinical neuroimaging 08/2014; 6. DOI:10.1016/j.nicl.2014.08.012 · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    • "The cerebellum and the DMN are linked to the frontal-parietal network by eMIC and MIC but not PCC. Combined with the DMN, this network is thought to be closely related to attention tasks (Bush and Shin, 2006; Gao and Lin, 2012), which may explain the occurrence of attention impairment and its relationship to the DMN in schizophrenia. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Dysfunctional integration of distributed brain networks is believed to be the cause of schizophrenia, and resting-state functional connectivity analyses of schizophrenia have attracted considerable attention in recent years. Unfortunately, existing functional connectivity analyses of schizophrenia have been mostly limited to linear associations. Objective: The objective of the present study is to evaluate the discriminative power of non-linear functional connectivity and identify its changes in schizophrenia. Method: A novel measure utilizing the extended maximal information coefficient was introduced to construct non-linear functional connectivity. In conjunction with multivariate pattern analysis, the new functional connectivity successfully discriminated schizophrenic patients from healthy controls with relative higher accuracy rate than the linear measure. Result: We found that the strength of the identified non-linear functional connections involved in the classification increased in patients with schizophrenia, which was opposed to its linear counterpart. Further functional network analysis revealed that the changes of the non-linear and linear connectivity have similar but not completely the same spatial distribution in human brain. Conclusion: The classification results suggest that the non-linear functional connectivity provided useful discriminative power in diagnosis of schizophrenia, and the inverse but similar spatial distributed changes between the non-linear and linear measure may indicate the underlying compensatory mechanism and the complex neuronal synchronization underlying the symptom of schizophrenia.
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 10/2013; 7:702. DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2013.00702 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    • "Patients (n¼ 14) Controls (n ¼14) t-test Mean S.D. Mean S.D. Age (range) 22.0 (16 to 38) 5.70 22.4 (15 to 38) 6.16 t¼ 0.17, p ¼0.85 Education 12.57 1.70 12.71 2.23 t¼ 0.19, p ¼ 0.85 Edinburgh Laterality Quotient 0.60 0.55 0.56 0.55 t¼ 0.18, p ¼0.85 Weeks between Baseline and Followup Scans 12.4 1.0 12.3 0.6 t¼ 0.53, p ¼ 0.60 T. Ikuta et al. / Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 221 (2014) 127–134 128 2.4. Functional magnetic resonance imaging task All participants completed the Multi-Source Interference Task (MSIT) to assess attentional control (Bush and Shin, 2006 "
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    ABSTRACT: Psychotic disorders are characterized by significant deficits in attentional control, but the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these deficits early in the course of illness prior to extensive pharmacotherapy are not well understood. Moreover, little is known regarding the symptom and brain changes associated with amelioration of attentional impairments through antipsychotic pharmacotherapy. In this study 14 male patients experiencing a first-episode of psychosis with minimal prior antipsychotic treatment completed an attentional control task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging at the onset of treatment with a second generation antipsychotic (risperidone or aripiprazole) in a double blind randomized clinical trial and then again following approximately 12 weeks of treatment. In addition, 14 age-, and performance-matched healthy male volunteers who were not treated completed the same task at a baseline timepoint and then again following 12 weeks. Patients showed significantly greater activation than healthy volunteers in the right globus pallidus, left thalamus, and right thalamus at the time of the baseline scan. Among patients there was a significant reduction in right globus pallidus blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response following antipsychotic treatment that correlated significantly with improvement in response accuracy and reductions in thought disturbance. No changes in globus pallidus activation were observed in healthy volunteers over this time period. These preliminary findings suggest that improvement in attentional control and concomitant reductions in thought disturbance in first-episode psychosis may be associated with reductions in subcortical activity following administration of second-generation antipsychotics early in the course of illness. These findings have implications for understanding how changes in basal ganglia activity may be linked to improvements in attentional control through antipsychotics.
    10/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2013.09.010
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