Quercetin glucuronides inhibited 2-aminofluorene acetylation in human acute myeloid HL-60 leukemia cells
ABSTRACT Our earlier study has demonstrated that following the exposure of rat to the arylamine carcinogen 2-aminofluorene, DNA-2-aminofluorene adducts were found in the target tissues liver, bladder, colon, lung and also in circulating leukocytes (lymphocytes and monocytes). The result also demonstrated that orally treated antioxidants decreased N-acetylation of 2-aminofluorene in target tissues and leukocytes. Therefore, this study investigated whether quercetin glucuronides could affect N-acetylation of 2-aminofluorene in human acute myeloid leukemia HL-60 cells. Evidence is presented here that human leukemia cells are capable of acetylating 2-aminofluorene. Quercetin glucuronides did inhibit 2-aminofluorene acetylation in intact cells. The results also indicated that quercetin glucuronides induced cytotoxicity in dose-dependent manner in the examined human acute myeloid leukemia HL-60 cells.
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ABSTRACT: Flavonoids are secondary metabolites abun-dantly widespread throughout the plant kingdom. The major sources of flavonoids are fruit products (e.g. citrus fruits, rosehip, apricot, cherry, grapes, black currant, bilberry, apple), vegetables (e.g. onion, green pepper, broccoli, tomato, spinach), beverages (red wine, coffee, tea), cocoa bean, soy products and herbs . They are found in all plant tissues, where they are present inside the cells or on the surfaces of different plant organs. The chemical structures of this class of com-pounds are based on a diphenylpropane (C6-C3-C6) skeleton containing two aromatic rings, which are connected through a three-carbon "bridge" and become a part of a six-member heterocyclic ring (Fig. 1). Their structures may range from that of a simple phenolic molecule to that of a complex high-molecular-weight polymer. Depending on the connection of the aromatic ring to the heterocyclic ring, flavonoids can be di-vided into three classes: flavonoids (2-phenylben-zopyrans), isoflavonoids (3-phenylbenzopyrans) and neoflavonoids (4-phenylbenzopyrans) . Based on the degree of oxidation and saturation in the heterocyclic C-ring, flavonoids may be divided into several groups which are depicted in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3. Flavonoids are often hydroxylated in positions 3, 5, 7, 3', 4' and/or 5'. One or more of these hy-droxyl groups are often methylated, acylated, prenylated or sulphated. In plants, flavonoids are often present as O-or C-glycosides. The O-glyco-sides have saccharide substituents bound to a hy-droxyl group of the aglycone, usually located at position 3 or 7, whereas the C-glycosides have sac-charide groups bound to a carbon of the aglycone, Bioavailability and metabolism of flavonoidsJournal of food and nutrition research 01/2008; 47(4):151-162. · 0.44 Impact Factor