Dissociated theta phase synchronization in amygdalo- hippocampal circuits during various stages of fear memory.
ABSTRACT The amygdala and the hippocampus are critically involved in the formation and retention of fear memories. However, their precise contribution to, and their interplay during, fear memory formation are not fully understood. In the present study we investigated network activities in the amygdalo-hippocampal system of freely behaving mice at different stages of fear memory consolidation and retention. Our data show enhanced theta phase synchronization in this pathway during the retrieval of fear memory at long-term (24 h post-training), but not short-term (2 min, 30 min and 2 h post-training) stages, following both contextual and auditory cued conditioning. However, retrieval of remotely conditioned fear (30 days post-training) failed to induce an increase in synchronization despite there still being memory retention. Thus, our data indicate that the amygdalo-hippocampal interaction reflects a dynamic interaction of ensemble activities related to various stages of fear memory consolidation and/or retention, and support the notion that recent and remote memories are organized through different network principles.
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ABSTRACT: There are numerous reports on rhythmic coupling between separate brain networks. It has been proposed that this rhythmic coupling indicates exchange of information. So far, few computational models have been proposed that explore this principle and its potential computational benefits. Recent results on hippocampal place cells of the rat provide new insight; it has been shown that information about space is encoded by the firing of place cells with respect to the phase of the ongoing theta rhythm. This principle is termed phase coding and suggests that upcoming locations (predicted by the hippocampus) are encoded by cells firing late in the theta cycle, whereas current location is encoded by early firing in the theta cycle. A network reading the hippocampal output must inevitably also receive an oscillatory theta input in order to decipher the phase-coded firing patterns. In this article, I propose a simple physiologically plausible mechanism implemented as an oscillatory network that can decode the hippocampal output. By changing only the phase of the theta input to the decoder, qualitatively different information is transferred: the theta phase determines whether representations of current or upcoming locations are read by the decoder. The proposed mechanism provides a computational principle for information transfer between oscillatory networks and might generalize to brain networks beyond the hippocampal region.Neural Computation 01/2002; 13(12):2743-61. · 1.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This article tries to integrate results in memory research from divergent disciplines such as cognitive psychology, neuroanatomy, and neurophysiology. The integrating link is seen in more recent findings that provide strong arguments for the assumption that oscillations are a basic form of communication between cortical cell assemblies. It is assumed that synchronous oscillations of large cell assemblies--termed type 1 synchronization--reflect a resting state or possibly even a state of functional inhibition. On the other hand, during mental activity, when different neuronal networks may start to oscillate with different frequencies, each network may still oscillate synchronously (this is termed type 2 synchronization), but as a consequence, the large scale type 1 oscillation disappears. It is argued that these different types of synchronization can be observed in the scalp EEG by calculating event-related power changes within comparatively narrow but individually adjusted frequency bands. Experimental findings are discussed which support the hypothesis that short-term (episodic) memory demands lead to a synchronization (increase in band power) in the theta band, whereas long-term (semantic) memory demands lead to a task-specific desynchronization (decrease or suppression of power) in the upper alpha band. Based on these and other findings, a new memory model is proposed that is described on three levels: cognitive, anatomical and neurophysiological. It is suggested that short-term (episodic) memory processes are reflected by oscillations in an anterior limbic system, whereas long-term (semantic) memory processes are reflected by oscillations in a posterior-thalamic system. Oscillations in these frequency bands possibly provide the basis for encoding, accessing, and retrieving cortical codes that are stored in the form of widely distributed but intensely interconnected cell assemblies.International Journal of Psychophysiology 12/1996; 24(1-2):61-100. · 2.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have studied patients with variable degrees of left hippocampal and amygdala pathology who performed a verbal encoding task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess the impact of pathology on emotional-memory performance and encoding-evoked activity. The severity of left hippocampal pathology predicted memory performance for neutral and emotional items alike, whereas the severity of amygdala pathology predicted memory performance for emotional items alone. Encoding-related hippocampal activity for successfully remembered emotional items correlated with the degree of left amygdala pathology. Conversely, amygdala-evoked activity with respect to subsequently remembered emotional items correlated with the degree of left hippocampal pathology. Our data indicate a reciprocal dependence between amygdala and hippocampus during the encoding of emotional memories.Nature Neuroscience 04/2004; 7(3):278-85. · 15.25 Impact Factor