Kastelein, J. J. et al. Designs of RADIANCE 1 and 2: carotid ultrasound studies comparing the effects of torcetrapib/atorvastatin with atorvastatin alone on atherosclerosis. Curr. Med. Res. Opin. 23, 885-894
Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.Current Medical Research and Opinion (Impact Factor: 2.65). 05/2007; 23(4):885-94. DOI: 10.1185/030079907X182121
OBJECTIVE: The RADIANCE studies were designed to assess the effects of torcetrapib/atorvastatin (T/A) compared with atorvastatin alone on slowing atherosclerotic progression in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (RADIANCE 1) or mixed hyperlipidemia (RADIANCE 2), as measured by change in carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: RADIANCE 1 and 2 were randomized, double-blind, controlled trials with a duration of 2 years. In both studies, eligible subjects began treatment with atorvastatin during a run-in period and were titrated to target LDL-C levels defined by NCEP ATP III guidelines. Subjects then proceeded to a double-blind randomized treatment period where they received one of two regimens: (i) fixed combination T/A (torcetrapib dose, 60 mg), or (ii) atorvastatin alone. In both regimens, the dose of atorvastatin was established during the run-in period (20-80 mg, RADIANCE 1; 10-80 mg RADIANCE 2). B-mode ultrasonography was performed in duplicate at baseline and at end of study, and every 6 months in between. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary efficacy measure in both studies was the annualized rate of change in maximum CIMT of 12 pre-defined carotid segments. Further outcome measures included lipid and safety assessments. Current status: The number of subjects randomized was 904 in RADIANCE 1 and 752 in RADIANCE 2. Results are anticipated in 2007.
Article: Lessons from the torcetrapib trials
Conference Paper: Transparent tone-in-band (TTIB) aided GMSK/MSK modem systems[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The authors propose a scheme which employs BBC (binary block code) coding to allow carrier pilot insertion in GMSK/MSK (Gaussian minimum-shift keying/minimum-shift keying) modems for tone calibration and coherent detection. They analyze the performance of the BBC-coded GMSK/MSK modem and derive a closed-form expression for its performance under Rayleigh fading. The effect of carrier phase noise on the modem's performance in a nonfading channel is investigated. it is found that, in the absence of fading, GMSK signalling with small bandwidth-time product ( BT ) value is more sensitive to carrier phase jitter than that with larger BT . The authors also investigated the performance of a BBC-coded GMSK modem with tone calibration over a Rayleigh fading channel. It is found that the modem is capable of delivering good performance in a Rayleigh fading environment where the more conventional coherent detection would cease to be practical due to its relatively high error floorVehicular Technology Conference, 1989, IEEE 39th; 06/1989
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Torcetrapib, an inhibitor of cholesteryl ester transfer protein, may reduce atherosclerotic vascular disease by increasing levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. A total of 850 patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia underwent B-mode ultrasonography at baseline and at follow-up to measure changes in carotid intima-media thickness. The patients completed an atorvastatin run-in period and were subsequently randomly assigned to receive either atorvastatin monotherapy or atorvastatin combined with 60 mg of torcetrapib for 2 years. After 24 months, in the atorvastatin-only group, the mean (+/-SD) HDL cholesterol level was 52.4+/-13.5 mg per deciliter and the mean low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level was 143.2+/-42.2 mg per deciliter, as compared with 81.5+/-22.6 mg per deciliter and 115.1+/-48.5 mg per deciliter, respectively, in the torcetrapib-atorvastatin group. During the study, average systolic blood pressure increased by 2.8 mm Hg in the torcetrapib-atorvastatin group, as compared with the atorvastatin-only group. The increase in maximum carotid intima-media thickness, the primary measure of efficacy, was 0.0053+/-0.0028 mm per year in the atorvastatin-only group and 0.0047+/-0.0028 mm per year in the torcetrapib-atorvastatin group (P=0.87). The secondary efficacy measure, annualized change in mean carotid intima-media thickness for the common carotid artery, indicated a decrease of 0.0014 mm per year in the atorvastatin-only group, as compared with an increase of 0.0038 mm per year in the torcetrapib-atorvastatin group (P=0.005). In patients with familial hypercholesterolemia, the use of torcetrapib with atorvastatin, as compared with atorvastatin alone, did not result in further reduction of progression of atherosclerosis, as assessed by a combined measure of carotid arterial-wall thickness, and was associated with progression of disease in the common carotid segment. These effects occurred despite a large increase in HDL cholesterol levels and a substantial decrease in levels of LDL cholesterol and triglycerides. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00136981 [ClinicalTrials.gov].).New England Journal of Medicine 05/2007; 356(16):1620-30. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa071359 · 55.87 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.