Molecular Dissection of Hyperdiploid Multiple Myeloma by Gene Expression Profiling

Department of Hematology-Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona, USA.
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.33). 04/2007; 67(7):2982-9. DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-4046
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Hyperdiploid multiple myeloma (H-MM) is the most common form of myeloma. In this gene expression profiling study, we show that H-MM is defined by a protein biosynthesis signature that is primarily driven by a gene dosage mechanism as a result of trisomic chromosomes. Within H-MM, four independently validated patient clusters overexpressing nonoverlapping sets of genes that form cognate pathways/networks that have potential biological importance in multiple myeloma were identified. One prominent cluster, cluster 1, is characterized by high expression of cancer testis antigen and proliferation-associated genes. Tumors from these patients were more proliferative than tumors in other clusters (median plasma cell labeling index, 3.8; P < 0.05). Another cluster, cluster 3, is characterized by genes involved in tumor necrosis factor/nuclear factor-kappaB signaling and antiapoptosis. These patients have better response to bortezomib as compared with patients within other clusters (70% versus 29%; P = 0.02). Furthermore, for a group of patients generally thought to have better prognosis, a cluster of patients with short survival (cluster 1; median survival, 27 months) could be identified. This analysis illustrates the heterogeneity within H-MM and the importance of defining specific cytogenetic prognostic factors. Furthermore, the signatures that defined these clusters may provide a basis for tailoring treatment to individual patients.

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    • "This however is unlikely, as myeloma has a distinctively low proliferation rate. Instead, it is proposed that the overexpression is driven by gene copy number increases, with hyperdiploid cells then possessing more ribosomes and translational initiation factors to promote myelomagenesis through the overexpression of cellular growth genes [54] "
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple myeloma is a malignant proliferation of monoclonal plasma cells leading to clinical features that include hypercalcaemia, renal dysfunction, anaemia, and bone disease (frequently referred to by the acronym CRAB) which represent evidence of end organ failure. Recent evidence has revealed myeloma to be a highly heterogeneous disease composed of multiple molecularly-defined subtypes each with varying clinicopathological features and disease outcomes. The major division within myeloma is between hyperdiploid and nonhyperdiploid subtypes. In this division, hyperdiploid myeloma is characterised by trisomies of certain odd numbered chromosomes, namely, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 15, 19, and 21 whereas nonhyperdiploid myeloma is characterised by translocations of the immunoglobulin heavy chain alleles at chromosome 14q32 with various partner chromosomes, the most important of which being 4, 6, 11, 16, and 20. Hyperdiploid and nonhyperdiploid changes appear to represent early or even initiating mutagenic events that are subsequently followed by secondary aberrations including copy number abnormalities, additional translocations, mutations, and epigenetic modifications which lead to plasma cell immortalisation and disease progression. The following review provides a comprehensive coverage of the genetic and epigenetic events contributing to the initiation and progression of multiple myeloma and where possible these abnormalities have been linked to disease prognosis.
    Advances in Hematology 04/2014; 2014(6):864058. DOI:10.1155/2014/864058
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    • "The expression levels of the 308 differentially expressed genes discriminating CMA-03/06 versus CMA-03 cell lines were evaluated in a dataset of 274 samples including 18 normal PCs, 28 monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), 19 smoldering MM (sMM), 200 newly diagnosed MM, and nine plasma cell leukemia (PCL) patients from three independent cohorts (GSE13591 (Agnelli et al., 2009), GSE6477 (Chng et al., 2007), GSE6691 (Gutierrez et al., 2007)), profiled on GeneChip HG-U133A arrays and annotated using GeneAnnot custom chip definition file (GA v. 2.2.0) (Todoerti et al., 2013). As previously described by Todoerti et al. (2013), the Kruskal–Wallis and the Jonckheere–Terpstra tests were applied to the selected gene list to identify significant differential expressions and trends from healthy donors through PCL cases. "
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    ABSTRACT: We explored the molecular mechanisms involved in the establishement of CMA-03/06, an IL-6-independent variant of the multiple myeloma cell line CMA-03 previously generated in our Institution. CMA-03/06 cells grow in the absence of IL-6 with a doubling time comparable with that of CMA-03 cells; neither the addition of IL6 (IL-6) to the culture medium nor co-culture with multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells increases the proliferation rate, although they maintain the responsiveness to IL-6 stimulation as demonstrated by STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5 induction. IL-6 independence of CMA-03/06 cells is not apparently due to the development of an autocrine IL-6 loop, nor to the observed moderate constitutive activation of STAT5 and STAT3, since STAT3 silencing does not affect cell viability or proliferation. When compared to the parental cell line, CMA-03/06 cells showed an activated pattern of the NF-κB pathway. This finding is supported by gene expression profiling (GEP) analysis identifying an appreciable fraction of modulated genes (28/308) in the CMA-03/06 subclone reported to be involved in this pathway. Furthermore, although more resistant to apoptotic stimuli compared to the parental cell line, CMA-03/06 cells display a higher sensibility to NF-κB inhibition induced by bortezomib. Finally, GEP analysis suggests an involvement of a number of cytokines, which might contribute to IL-6 independence of CMA-03/06 by stimulating growth and antiapoptotic processes. In conclusion, the parental cell-line CMA-03 and its variant CMA-03/06 represent a suitable model to further investigate molecular mechanisms involved in the IL-6-independent growth of myeloma cells. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 02/2014; 53(2):154-67. DOI:10.1002/gcc.22127 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    • "Expression data from 162 CD138+ bone marrow plasma cell samples from healthy individuals as well as patients with MGUS, SMM, MM-N, and MM-R, which were measured by using Affymetrix U133A microarrays, were downloaded from GEO (GSE6477) [40,41]. Robust Multichip Average (RMA) algorithm was used for normalization/quantification of the data. "
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    ABSTRACT: MET is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is activated by the ligand HGF and this pathway promotes cell survival, migration, and motility. In accordance with its oncogenic role, MET is constitutively active, mutated, or over-expressed in many cancers. Corollary to its impact, inhibition of MET kinase activity causes reduction of the downstream signaling and demise of cells. In myeloma, a B-cell plasma malignancy, MET is neither mutated nor over-expressed, however, HGF is increased in plasma or serum obtained from myeloma patients and this was associated with poor prognosis. The small-molecule, amuvatinib, inhibits MET receptor tyrosine kinase. Based on this background, we hypothesized that targeting the HGF/MET signaling pathway is a rational approach to myeloma therapy and that myeloma cells would be sensitive to amuvatinib. Expression of MET and HGF mRNAs in normal versus malignant plasma cells was compared during disease progression. Cell death and growth as well as MET signaling pathway were assessed in amuvatinib treated primary myeloma cells and cell lines. There was a progressive increase in the transcript levels of HGF (but not MET) from normal plasma cells to refractory malignant plasma cells. Amuvatinib readily inhibited MET phosphorylation in primary CD138+ cells from myeloma patients and in concordance, increased cell death. A 48-hr amuvatinib treatment in high HGF-expressing myeloma cell line, U266, resulted in growth inhibition. Levels of cytotoxicity were time-dependent; at 24, 48, and 72 h, amuvatinib (25 muM) resulted in 28%, 40%, and 55% cell death. Consistent with these data, there was an amuvatinib-mediated decrease in MET phosphorylation in the cell line. Amuvatinib at concentrations of 5, 10, or 25 muM readily inhibited HGF-dependent MET, AKT, ERK and GSK-3-beta phosphorylation. MET-mediated effects were not observed in myeloma cell line that has low MET and/or HGF expression. These data suggest that at the cellular level MET/HGF pathway inclines with myeloma disease progression. Amuvatinib, a small molecule MET kinase inhibitor, is effective in inducing growth inhibition and cell death in myeloma cell lines as well as primary malignant plasma cells. These cytostatic and cytotoxic effects were associated with an impact on MET/HGF pathway.
    Journal of Hematology & Oncology 12/2013; 6(1):92. DOI:10.1186/1756-8722-6-92 · 4.81 Impact Factor
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