Sustained, long-term renal stabilization after 54 months of agalsidase beta therapy in patients with Fabry disease
ABSTRACT Fabry disease, an inherited deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-galactosidase A, causes progressive intralysosomal accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (GL-3) and premature death from renal, cardiac, and cerebrovascular manifestations. To determine the long-term safety and efficacy of recombinant human alpha-galactosidase A, an open-label, phase III extension study was conducted, involving 58 patients who had classic Fabry disease and completed a 20-wk, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase III study of agalsidase beta and were transitioned to an extension trial to receive biweekly 1 mg/kg agalsidase beta for up to an additional 54 mo. GL-3 accumulation was evaluated in the capillary endothelia of the skin, kidney, and heart. Renal function was assessed. By month 54, all patients with optional kidney biopsies (n = 8) maintained complete GL-3 clearance in renal capillary endothelial cells and multiple cell types. Continued, complete clearance of skin (31 of 36) and heart (six of eight) capillary endothelium was demonstrated. Mean plasma GL-3 levels remained decreased in the normal range. Median serum creatinine and estimated GFR remained stable (normal) in patients with renal data at month 54 (n = 41). Six patients had renal disease progression; most (four of six) were older than 40 yr and had significant proteinuria at baseline and evidence of sclerotic glomeruli pretreatment. Adverse events were generally mild and unrelated to treatment. The most common treatment-related adverse events were infusion-associated reactions, which decreased over time. Long-term agalsidase beta therapy stabilizes renal function in patients without renal involvement at baseline, maintains reduction of plasma GL-3, and sustains GL-3 clearance in capillary endothelial cells and multiple renal cell types.
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ABSTRACT: Fabry disease is an X-linked inborn error of glycolipid metabolism caused by deficiency of the human lysosomal enzyme, α-galactosidase A (αGal), leading to strokes, myocardial infarctions, and terminal renal failure, often leading to death in the fourth or fifth decade of life. The enzyme is responsible for the hydrolysis of terminal α-galactoside linkages in various glycolipids. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has been approved for the treatment of Fabry disease, but adverse reactions, including immune reactions, make it desirable to generate improved methods for ERT. One approach to circumvent these adverse reactions is the development of derivatives of the enzyme with more activity per mg. It was previously reported that carboxyl-terminal deletions of 2 to 10 amino acids led to increased activity of about 2 to 6-fold. However, this data was qualitative or semi-quantitative and relied on comparison of the amounts of mRNA present in Northern blots with αGal enzyme activity using a transient expression system in COS-1 cells. Here we follow up on this report by constructing and purifying mutant enzymes with deletions of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 C-terminal amino acids (Δ2, Δ4, Δ6, Δ8, Δ10) for unambiguous quantitative enzyme assays. The results reported here show that the kcat/Km approximately doubles with deletions of 2, 4, 6 and 10 amino acids (0.8 to 1.7-fold effect) while a deletion of 8 amino acids decreases the kcat/Km (7.2-fold effect). These results indicate that the mutated enzymes with increased activity constructed here would be expected to have a greater therapeutic effect on a per mg basis, and could therefore reduce the likelihood of adverse infusion related reactions in Fabry patients receiving ERT treatment. These results also illustrate the principle that in vitro mutagenesis can be used to generate αGal derivatives with improved enzyme activity.PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(2):e0118341. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0118341 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Impairments of health related quality of life (HRQoL) are frequently observed in Fabry disease (FD) and are known to be related to neuropathic pain and cardiovascular events. This study aimed to explore the role of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a large cohort of patients with FD. In 96 patients (53% female; age 40 +/- 12 yrs) with genetically proven FD, HRQoL was assessed by the Medical Outcomes Study (SF-36) questionnaire. All patients were naive to enzyme replacement therapy. Three categories for kidney dysfunction were chosen, eGFR >=/<60 ml/min/1.73 m2 or need of renal replacement therapy (RRT). Minor (e.g. arrhythmia, angina pectoris, etc.) and major (e.g. myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass, stroke or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator) vascular events as well as pain and pain therapy were considered in linear regression analyses with the dimensions of HRQoL. Ten patients (10%) had impaired kidney function and a further nine were on RRT (9.4%). Kidney function and pain emerged as the main factors associated with lower scores on the SF 36, in particular on physical components (PCS beta-coefficients for CKD -6.2, for RRT -11.8, for pain -9.1, p < 0.05, respectively), while controlling for gender, vascular event and pain-therapy. Relationships were found for mental aspects of HRQoL. Age and history of vascular events were not related to HRQoL. Cardiovascular events and pain are important factors related to HRQoL, social functioning and depression. Our study highlights impaired chronic kidney disease, in particular after initiation of RRT, as a strong determinant of reduced HRQoL in FD.BMC Nephrology 11/2014; 15(1):188. DOI:10.1186/1471-2369-15-188 · 1.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fabry disease. an X-linked deficiency of α-galactosidase A coded by the GLA gene, leads to intracellular globotriaosylceramide (GL-3) accumulation. Although less common than in males, chronic kidney disease, occurs in ∼15% of females. Recent studies highlight the importance of podocyte injury in Fabry nephropathy development and progression. We hypothesized that the greater the % of podocytes with active wild-type GLA gene (due to X-inactivation of the mutant copy) the less is the overall podocyte injury.PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e112188. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0112188 · 3.53 Impact Factor