Behavioral and accompanying physiological and immunological changes were investigated at various times during chronic irregular mild foot shock (CMFS) in adult male BALB/c mice. CMFS induced a significant hyperlocomotor activity in a familiar environment as well as increased consumption of chocolate milk (a favored drink) throughout the 5-week stress period. Unlike other chronic stress models, CMFS did not induce depressive-like behaviors. Hyperactivity was associated with transient elevations of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFalpha and IL-1beta) and IL-2 and more sustained (IL-10) or later (arginase activity) elevations in anti-inflammatory mediators in the spleen (serum levels below levels of detection) suggesting a transition from a pro-inflammatory state to an anti-inflammatory state during CMFS. Similar increases in brain levels of IL-2 and arginase activity were also detected and may contribute to CMFS-induced hyperactivity as both of these mediators have been shown to induce hyperactivity. To our knowledge, this is the first time that increased arginase activity has been documented during a stress paradigm. Altogether, the data indicate that CMFS induces behavioral changes distinct from other chronic stress models. CMFS is associated with multiple dynamic immunological changes, suggesting involvement of multiple factors in chronic stress-induced behavioral changes.
"One reason for these results might be an imbalance between central pain-inhibitory effect of stress and stress-induced sensitization of cutaneous nerve fibers ,  leading to thermal allodynia , . It is well known that stress induces local expression of cytokines –. Especially the pro-inflammatory cytokines like NGF, IL-6, IL-1, IL-12, IL-18, TNF-a – are able to exert a sensitization effect on cutaneous neural fibers. Our results do not provide insights into a possible contribution of peripheral or central effects of stress-induced cytokine expression. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Experimental stress has been shown to have analgesic as well as allodynic effect in animals. Despite the obvious negative influence of stress in clinical pain conditions, stress-induced alteration of pain sensitivity has not been tested in humans so far. Therefore, we tested changes of pain sensitivity using an experimental stressor in ten female healthy subjects and 13 female patients with fibromyalgia.
Multiple sensory aspects of pain were evaluated in all participants with the help of the quantitative sensory testing protocol before (60 min) and after (10 and 90 min) inducing psychological stress with a standardized psychosocial stress test ("Trier Social Stress Test").
Both healthy subjects and patients with fibromyalgia showed stress-induced enhancement of pain sensitivity in response to thermal stimuli. However, only patients showed increased sensitivity in response to pressure pain.
Our results provide evidence for stress-induced allodynia/hyperalgesia in humans for the first time and suggest differential underlying mechanisms determining response to stressors in healthy subjects and patients suffering from chronic pain. Possible mechanisms of the interplay of stress and mediating factors (e.g. cytokines, cortisol) on pain sensitivity are mentioned. Future studies should help understand better how stress impacts on chronic pain conditions.
PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e69460. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0069460 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Recent studies described similar phenomenon in several laboratory mouse strains [109-111]. While various effects of chronic stress on general locomotion in rodents were described [34,96,112-1115], lighting conditions employed during testing were reported to be a significant factor of general activity in the stressed animals [116-118]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To date, the reliability of induction of a depressive-like state using chronic stress models is confronted by many methodological limitations. We believe that the modifications to the stress paradigm in mice proposed herein allow some of these limitations to be overcome. Here, we discuss a variant of the standard stress paradigm, which results in anhedonia. This anhedonic state was defined by a decrease in sucrose preference that was not exhibited by all animals. As such, we propose the use of non-anhedonic, stressed mice as an internal control in experimental mouse models of depression. The application of an internal control for the effects of stress, along with optimized behavioural testing, can enable the analysis of biological correlates of stress-induced anhedonia versus the consequences of stress alone in a chronic-stress depression model. This is illustrated, for instance, by distinct physiological and molecular profiles in anhedonic and non-anhedonic groups subjected to stress. These results argue for the use of a subgroup of individuals who are negative for the induction of a depressive phenotype during experimental paradigms of depression as an internal control, for more refined modeling of this disorder in animals.
"Physical and psychological stress is a known risk factor for numerous human diseases, such as autoimmune diseases and cancer (Reiche et al., 2004; Shi et al., 2003; Cao et al., 2007; Frieri, 2003; Yang and Glaser, 2002). The immunological consequences of stress and the mechanisms by which stress compromises the immune system are important areas of study. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Physical and psychological stress can alter the immune system in both humans and animals. Stress is a known risk factor for numerous human diseases, such as infectious and autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a pivotal role in the induction of innate and adaptive immune response. Our previous studies have shown that TLR4 deficiency prevents stress-induced splenocyte reduction. However, the role of TLR2 in stress-mediated lymphocyte reduction is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of TLR2 ligands on stress-induced lymphocyte reduction. We also defined whether the phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks)/Akt pathway contributes to TLR2-mediated lymphocyte numbers altered by stress. Our data have shown that stimulation of TLR2 by TLR2 ligands peptidoglycan (PGN) or Pam3CSK4 (Pam3) attenuates stress-induced reduction in lymphocyte numbers. However, TLR2 ligand-induced protection from stress-induced lymphocyte reduction is lost in TLR2 deficiency in mice. Furthermore, stimulation of TLR2 by PGN induces protection from stress-induced reduction in the number of splenocytes through PI3K. Moreover, PGN dramatically increases the level of phosphorylation of Akt through a PI3K-dependent manner. Moreover, we found that stimulation of TLR2 by PGN induced protection from stress-induced reduction in splenocyte numbers is abolished in β-arrestin 2 deficient mice. In addition, PGN-induced immune protection in stress-induced changes of cytokine levels appears to require β-arrestin 2, a multifunctional adaptor and signal transducer. Collectively, our study thus demonstrates that stimulation of TLR2-mediated PI3K signaling attenuates splenocyte reduction induced by stress, and that β-arrestin 2 modulates TLR2-mediated immune response following stress.
Journal of neuroimmunology 12/2010; 233(1-2):73-9. DOI:10.1016/j.jneuroim.2010.11.015 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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