Risk factors for mortality after surgery in patients with cirrhosis
ABSTRACT Current methods of predicting risk of postoperative mortality in patients with cirrhosis are suboptimal. The utility of the Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) in predicting mortality after surgery other than liver transplantation is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for postoperative mortality in patients with cirrhosis.
Patients with cirrhosis (N = 772) who underwent major digestive (n = 586), orthopedic (n = 107), or cardiovascular (n = 79) surgery were studied. Control groups of patients with cirrhosis included 303 undergoing minor surgical procedures and 562 ambulatory patients. Univariate and multivariable proportional hazards analyses were used to determine the relationship between risk factors and mortality.
Patients undergoing major surgery were at increased risk for mortality up to 90 days postoperatively. By multivariable analysis, only MELD score, American Society of Anesthesiologists class, and age predicted mortality at 30 and 90 days, 1 year, and long-term, independently of type or year of surgery. Emergency surgery was the only independent predictor of duration of hospitalization postoperatively. Thirty-day mortality ranged from 5.7% (MELD score, <8) to more than 50% (MELD score, >20). The relationship between MELD score and mortality persisted throughout the 20-year postoperative period.
MELD score, age, and American Society of Anesthesiologists class can quantify the risk of mortality postoperatively in patients with cirrhosis, independently of the procedure performed. These factors can be used in determining operative mortality risk and whether elective surgical procedures can be delayed until after liver transplantation.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Jayant A Talwalkar, Sep 29, 2014
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ABSTRACT: Surgery is performed in patients with liver disease more frequently now than in the past, in part because of the long-term survival of patients with cirrhosis. Recent work has focused on estimating perioperative risk in patients with liver disease. Hemodynamic instability in the perioperative period can worsen liver function in patients with liver disease. Operative risk correlates with the severity of the underlying liver disease and the nature of the surgical procedure. Thorough preoperative evaluation is necessary prior to elective surgery. Surgery is contraindicated in patients with certain conditions, such as acute hepatitis, acute liver failure, and alcoholic hepatitis. Estimation of perioperative mortality is inexact because of the retrospective nature of and biased patient selection in available clinical studies. The Child-Pugh classification (Child-Turcotte-Pugh score) and particulary the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score provide reasonable estimations of perioperative mortality but do not replace the need for careful preoperative preparation and postoperative monitoring, as early detection of complications is essential for improving outcomes. Medical therapy for specific manifestations of hepatic disease, including ascites, encephalopathy, and renal dysfunction, should be optimized preoperatively or, if necessary, administered in the postoperative period.Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association 01/2010; 121:192-204; discussion 205.
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ABSTRACT: Secondary bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic patients is an uncommon entity that has been little reported. Our aim is to analyse the frequency, clinical characteristics, treatment and prognosis of patients with secondary peritonitis in comparison to those of patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). Retrospective analysis of 24 cirrhotic patients with secondary peritonitis compared with 106 SBP episodes. Secondary peritonitis represented 4.5% of all peritonitis in cirrhotic patients. Patients with secondary peritonitis showed a significantly more severe local inflammatory response than patients with SBP. Considering diagnosis of secondary peritonitis, the sensitivity of Runyon's criteria was 66.6% and specificity 89.7%, Runyon's criteria and/or polymicrobial ascitic fluid culture were present in 95.6%, and abdominal computed tomography was diagnostic in 85% of patients in whom diagnosis was confirmed by surgery or autopsy. Mortality during hospitalization was higher in patients with secondary peritonitis than in those with SBP (16/24, 66.6% vs. 28/106, 26.4%) (p<0.001). There was a trend to lower mortality in secondary peritonitis patients who underwent surgery (7/13, 53.8%) than in those who received medical treatment only (9/11, 81.8%) (p=0.21). Considering surgically treated patients, the time between diagnostic paracentesis and surgery was shorter in survivors than in non-survivors (3.2+/-2.4 vs. 7.2+/-6.1 days, p=0.31). Secondary peritonitis is an infrequent complication in cirrhotic patients but mortality is high. A low threshold of suspicion on the basis of Runyon's criteria and microbiological data, together with an aggressive approach that includes prompt abdominal computed tomography and early surgical evaluation, could improve prognosis in these patients.Journal of Hepatology 10/2009; 52(1):39-44. DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2009.10.012 · 10.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To assess safety and outcomes (metabolic and liver) of bariatric surgery in patients with cirrhosis with or without portal hypertension. This study is a retrospective review of 14 patients with Child's A cirrhosis with or without portal hypertension who were prospectively enrolled from February 23, 2009, through November 9, 2011, with 6- to 24-month follow-up after bariatric surgery (11 patients underwent sleeve gastrectomy [78.6%] and 3 gastric bypass [21.4%]). Four patients had portal hypertension detected by esophagogastroduodenoscopy. The mean patient age was 55.5 years, and 10 of 14 patients were women. The mean weight decreased from 125±18 to 94±17 at 1 year (P<.001) and 93±17 kg at 2 years (P<.001) postsurgery. The prevalence of diabetes decreased from 10 of 14 patients to 4 of 12 (P=.01) and 1 of 6 (P=.02) at 1 and 2 years postsurgery. The frequency of dyslipidemia and hypertension decreased but was not statistically significant; however, the number of medications required to control them decreased. Hepatic steatosis was detected by perioperative liver biopsy in 13 of 14 patients (5%-30% steatosis in 6 patients, 31%-60% in 6, and >60% in 1). At 1 year postsurgery, only 1 of 8 patients who underwent follow-up ultrasound imaging showed evidence of steatosis. The bilirubin level was above 2 mg/dL in 1 patient at 1 year postsurgery. One patient had encephalopathy at 2 years postsurgery. None of the patients developed peri- or postoperative bleeding or surgical complications. Bariatric surgery in patients with compensated cirrhosis even with mild portal hypertension is well tolerated and safe with minimal risk of postoperative complications if performed in a large referral center. This population can experience the beneficial effects of weight loss and improved metabolic syndrome, as well as reduced hepatic steatosis. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Mayo Clinic Proceedings 02/2015; 90(2):209-15. DOI:10.1016/j.mayocp.2014.11.012 · 5.81 Impact Factor