Article

UDP acting at P2Y6 receptors is a mediator of microglial phagocytosis.

Division of Pharmacology, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya, Tokyo 158-8501, Japan.
Nature (Impact Factor: 42.35). 05/2007; 446(7139):1091-5. DOI: 10.1038/nature05704
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Microglia, brain immune cells, engage in the clearance of dead cells or dangerous debris, which is crucial to the maintenance of brain functions. When a neighbouring cell is injured, microglia move rapidly towards it or extend a process to engulf the injured cell. Because cells release or leak ATP when they are stimulated or injured, extracellular nucleotides are thought to be involved in these events. In fact, ATP triggers a dynamic change in the motility of microglia in vitro and in vivo, a previously unrecognized mechanism underlying microglial chemotaxis; in contrast, microglial phagocytosis has received only limited attention. Here we show that microglia express the metabotropic P2Y6 receptor whose activation by endogenous agonist UDP triggers microglial phagocytosis. UDP facilitated the uptake of microspheres in a P2Y6-receptor-dependent manner, which was mimicked by the leakage of endogenous UDP when hippocampal neurons were damaged by kainic acid in vivo and in vitro. In addition, systemic administration of kainic acid in rats resulted in neuronal cell death in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions, where increases in messenger RNA encoding P2Y6 receptors that colocalized with activated microglia were observed. Thus, the P2Y6 receptor is upregulated when neurons are damaged, and could function as a sensor for phagocytosis by sensing diffusible UDP signals, which is a previously unknown pathophysiological function of P2 receptors in microglia.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
102 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In addition to a fundamental role in cellular bioenergetics, the purine nucleotide adenosine triphosphate (ATP) plays a crucial role in the extracellular space as a signaling molecule. ATP and its metabolites serve as ligands for a family of receptors that are collectively referred to as purinergic receptors. These receptors were first described and characterized in the nervous system but it soon became evident that they are expressed ubiquitously. In the immune system, purinergic signals regulate the migration and activation of immune cells and they may also orchestrate the resolution of inflammation (1, 2). The intracellular signal transduction initiated by purinergic receptors is strongly coupled to Ca(2+)-signaling, and co-ordination of these pathways plays a critical role in innate immunity. In this review, we provide an overview of purinergic and Ca(2+)-signaling in the context of macrophage phenotypic polarization and discuss the implications on macrophage function in physiological and pathological conditions.
    Frontiers in Immunology 11/2014; 5:580.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Billions of cells undergo apoptosis every day in healthy individuals. A prompt removal of dying cells prevents the release of pro-inflammatory intracellular content and progress to secondary necrosis. Thus, inappropriate clearance of apoptotic cells provokes autoimmunity and has been associated with many chronic inflammatory diseases. Recent studies have suggested that extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate and related nucleotides play an important role in the apoptotic clearance process. Here, we review the current understanding of nucleotides and purinergic receptors in apoptotic cell clearance and the potential therapeutic targets of purinergic receptor subtypes in inflammatory conditions.
    Frontiers in Immunology 12/2014; 5:656.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Apoptotic neurons generated during normal brain development or secondary to pathologic insults are efficiently cleared from the central nervous system. Several soluble factors, including nucleotides, cytokines, and chemokines are released from injured neurons, signaling microglia to find and clear debris. One such chemokine that serves as a neuronal-microglial communication factor is fractalkine, with roles demonstrated in several models of adult neurological disorders. Lacking, however, are studies investigating roles for fractalkine in perinatal brain injury, an important clinical problem with no effective therapies. We used a well-characterized mouse model of ethanol-induced apoptosis to assess the role of fractalkine in neuronal-microglial signaling. Quantification of apoptotic debris in fractalkine-knockout (KO) and CX3CR1-KO mice following ethanol treatment revealed increased apoptotic bodies compared to wild type mice. Ethanol-induced injury led to release of soluble, extracellular fractalkine. The extracellular media harvested from apoptotic brains induces microglial migration in a fractalkine-dependent manner that is prevented by neutralization of fractalkine with a blocking antibody or by deficiency in the receptor, CX3CR1. This suggests fractalkine acts as a "find-me" signal, recruiting microglial processes toward apoptotic cells to promote their clearance. Next, we aimed to determine whether there are downstream alterations in cytokine gene expression due to fractalkine signaling. We examined mRNA expression in fractalkine-KO and CX3CR1-KO mice after alcohol-induced apoptosis and found differences in cytokine production in the brains of these KOs by 6 h after ethanol treatment. Collectively, this suggests that fractalkine acts as a "find me" signal released by apoptotic neurons, and subsequently plays a critical role in modulating both clearance and inflammatory cytokine gene expression after ethanol-induced apoptosis.
    Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 11/2014; 8:360. · 4.18 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
57 Downloads
Available from
May 23, 2014