Differential correlates of multi-type maltreatment among urban youth

Neurology: Child and Adult, PC, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL, USA.
Child Abuse & Neglect (Impact Factor: 2.47). 04/2007; 31(4):393-415. DOI: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2006.09.006
Source: PubMed


The aim of this study was to examine the differential effects of multi-types of maltreatment in an adolescent sample. Different combinations of maltreatment (emotional, sexual, physical, neglect) were examined in relation to both negative affect and externalizing symptoms in male and female youth.
One thousand four hundred fifty-two middle and high school youth were recruited from urban schools and a mandated early warning truancy program. Youth completed an anonymous survey that included measures of child maltreatment, depression, suicide proneness, hopelessness, delinquency, hostility, substance use, and promiscuity. Respondents were categorized into groups of different combinations of maltreatment by their reports of sexual abuse, physical abuse, neglect (emotional and physical), and emotional abuse.
Nearly two-thirds of boys and girls reported some form of maltreatment, and multi-type maltreatment was common (e.g., 13% reported experiencing both physical and sexual abuse and neglect). Individuals with maltreatment histories were more depressed (F=52.78, p<.0001), suicide prone (F=24.29, p<.001), and hopeless (F=32.07, p<.0001) than non-abused individuals. Maltreated adolescents were also more hostile (F=35.03, p<.0001), and they engaged in more delinquent behavior (F=26.76, p<.0001), promiscuity (F=8.54, p<.0001), and drug and alcohol use (F=9.61, p<.0001). Individuals experiencing multi-type maltreatment were the most symptomatic, particularly youth with histories of physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect. In general, gender differences in effects were not observed.
The results highlight the importance of studying combined types of maltreatment, as well as understanding the particularly deleterious effects of neglect and emotional abuse. The results are generally consistent with an additive model of maltreatment effects.

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Available from: Jennifer Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Apr 23, 2015
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    • "Complex trauma can be understood as experiences of cumulative, chronic, and prolonged traumatic events, most often of an interpersonal nature, involving primary caregiving system, and frequently arising in early childhood or adolescence (Cook et al., 2005; Courtois, 2008). Till date, growing evidence has acknowledged the co-occurrence of multiple types of severe adversities (Mullen et al., 1996; Higgins and McCabe, 2001; Diaz et al., 2002; Clemmons et al., 2003; Dong et al., 2004; Stevens et al., 2005; Arata et al., 2007; Finkelhor et al., 2007, 2009; Turner et al., 2010; Greeson et al., 2011; Trickett et al., 2011) and their greater risk for subsequent trauma exposure and cumulative clinical impairment compared with singly traumatized youth (Schumm et al., 2006; Finkelhor et al., 2007, 2009; Cloitre et al., 2009; Margolin et al., 2009; Shen, 2009; Heim et al., 2010). However, numerous studies highlight the additive effect of child and adolescent multi-type maltreatment on later symptom complexity and psychopathology, including internalizing (Danielson et al., 2005; Schumm et al., 2006; Anda et al., 2007; Sachs-Ericsson et al., 2007; Widom et al., 2007; Ford et al., 2010), externalizing (Brown and Anderson, 1991; Herrenkohl et al., 1997; Finkelhor et al., 2009; Ford et al., 2009, 2010; Shen, 2009), and trauma symptoms (Boney- McCoy and Finkelhor, 1996; Mulder et al., 1998; Schaaf and McCanne, 1998; Finkelhor et al., 2007, 2009; Vranceanu et al., 2007; Shen, 2009; Ford et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Research on the etiology of adult psychopathology and its relationship with childhood trauma has focused primarily on specific forms of maltreatment. This study developed an instrument for the assessment of childhood and adolescence trauma that would aid in identifying the role of co-occurring childhood stressors and chronic adverse conditions. The Complex Trauma Questionnaire (ComplexTQ), in both clinician and self-report versions, is a measure for the assessment of multi-type maltreatment: physical, psychological, and sexual abuse; physical and emotional neglect as well as other traumatic experiences, such rejection, role reversal, witnessing domestic violence, separations, and losses. The four-point Likert scale allows to specifically indicate with which caregiver the traumatic experience has occurred. A total of 229 participants, a sample of 79 nonclinical and that of 150 high-risk and clinical participants, were assessed with the ComplexTQ clinician version applied to Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) transcripts. Initial analyses indicate acceptable inter-rater reliability. A good fit to a 6-factor model regarding the experience with the mother and to a 5-factor model with the experience with the father was obtained; the internal consistency of factors derived was good. Convergent validity was provided with the AAI scales. ComplexTQ factors discriminated normative from high-risk and clinical samples. The findings suggest a promising, reliable, and valid measurement of early relational trauma that is reported; furthermore, it is easy to complete and is useful for both research and clinical practice.
    Frontiers in Psychology 09/2015; 6:1323. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01323 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    • "When the assailant in index sexualized activity is different from the assailant of earlier sexualized assaults, the index sexualized activity increases risk of psychological difficulties by increasing the number of assailants to whom the plaintiff has been exposed. Finally, risk for later psychological difficulties increases with increases in the number of different forms of maltreatment or trauma experienced by an individual (e.g., Arata et al., 2007; Finkelhor et al., 2007; Green et al., 2000; Higgins & McCabe, 2000; Kolassa et al., 2010; Richmond et al., 2007; Sledjeski et al., 2008; Suliman et al., 2009). For example, Suliman et al. found that adolescents exposed to multiple traumas were more likely to experience more severe PTSD and depression than those exposed to a single traumatic event, even after adjusting for other childhood adversity and stressful life experiences (Suliman et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Though childhood sexualized assault (CSA) in- creases risk for varied psychological difficulties, no single condition, syndrome, or set of difficulties is reliably associated with such experiences. CSA likely disrupts or impairs normal development in complex ways that depend on the risk and resilience factors present before, during, and after CSA. CSA characteristics that increase risk for later difficulties include young age, trauma inflicted by another person, number of occurrences, violence or intrusiveness, betrayal of trust, ad- verse peri-traumatic reactions, negative reactions from others following disclosure, and a context of previous sexualized assault or maltreatment. Resilience increases with positive self-esteem, better intellectual functioning, good self-control, positive social support, and early therapeutic intervention. CSA is associated with impaired psychological development, mental health disorders, behavioural and relationship difficulties, physical health problems, reduced intellectual function, lower educational achievement, lower occupational attainment, and reduced lifetime income. Any particular difficulty may be problematic in its own right and may also contribute to other difficulties in the interlocking domains of individual abilities and attributes, relationships, and significant life activities. In individual forensic assessment cases, general evidence on CSA risk/resilience and impacts can be used in combination with the lifespan developmental analysis (Barnes & Josefowitz, Psychological Injury and Law, 2014),
    Psychological Injury and Law 03/2014; DOI:10.1007/s12207-014-9184-0
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    • "As a phenomenon in general, it has relatively recently become a subject of increased scientific attention, demonstrating insidious psychiatric outcomes, after checking for other forms of maltreatment (Kent et al., 1999; Spertus et al., 2003; Teicher et al., 2006). As different types of childhood maltreatment often coexist (Teicher et al., 2006) and additive effects of multi-type maltreatment may increase negative outcomes (Arata et al., 2007; Clemmons et al., 2003), inferences on their specific, independent effects on child abuse potential should be made cautiously, especially due to the possible underlying contribution of emotional abuse. The relative effects of all forms of maltreatment history on psychopathology in non-clinical population have recently been assessed (Keyes et al., 2012), in terms of latent liability dimensions and specific psychiatric disorders. "
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    ABSTRACT: The independent roles of each childhood maltreatment type on child abuse potential in adults have been insufficiently explored and are inconsistent, with dissociation as one of the possible suggested mediators of intergenerational child abuse. We investigated these effects among 164 non-clinical adult parents, who filled in general questionnaires: Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) and Dissociative Experience Scale (DES). Among all maltreatment types (emotional, physical and sexual abuse, emotional and physical neglect), emotional abuse was the only independent predictor in the regression model of child abuse potential. The relationship between emotional abuse history and child abuse potential was partially mediated by dissociation. The findings could speak in favor of the potentially unique detrimental role of emotional abuse in intergenerational maltreatment, with dissociation as one of the possible mechanisms.
    Archives of Biological Sciences 01/2014; 66(4):1681-1687. DOI:10.2298/ABS1404681M · 0.72 Impact Factor
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