Article

Asymmetric expression of melatonin receptor mRNA in bilateral paravertebral muscles in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

Spine Surgery, Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China.
Spine (Impact Factor: 2.45). 03/2007; 32(6):667-72. DOI: 10.1097/01.brs.0000257536.34431.96
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Comparison of melatonin receptor mRNA expression in bilateral paravertebral muscles in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). OBJECTIVES.: To investigate the change of melatonin receptor mRNA expression in bilateral paravertebral muscles in AIS, congenital scoliosis (CS), and control in order to analyze its association to the pathogenesis of AIS.
Muscle imbalance and asymmetry of stretch receptors in the paravertebral muscles of patients with AIS were supposed to have a large role to play in the development and production of the deformity. Melatonin is a focus of studies of the mechanism underlying the development of scoliosis, and there is no research on the expression of melatonin receptors in the paravertebral muscles of patients with AIS.
Twenty cases with average age of 15.1 +/- 2.2 years and average Cobb angle of 56.2 degrees +/- 16.1 degrees, including 10 cases with Cobb angle >50 degrees and 10 cases with Cobb angle < or =50 degrees, were included in AIS group. The apical vertebrae were from T6 to T11. Twelve cases with an average age of 11.6 +/- 3.2 years and average Cobb angle of 59.2 degrees +/- 33.3 degrees were included in CS group. The apical vertebrae were from T7 to T12. Ten cases without scoliosis were in the control group. The mRNA expression of melatonin receptor subtype MT1 and MT2 was detected by the RT-PCR method.
The MT2 mRNA expression on the concave side of the paravertebral muscle was higher than that on the convex side in AIS and CS groups (P < 0.05), but the MT1 mRNA expression showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). In the AIS group, the ratio of MT2 mRNA expression on the concave side compared with the convex side in cases with Cobb angle >50 degrees and cases with Cobb angle < or =50 degrees showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). The MT1 and MT2 mRNA expression showed no significant difference in control group (P > 0.05).
The melatonin receptor expression in bilateral paravertebral muscles in AIS is asymmetric, which may be a secondary change. The bilateral asymmetry in force exerted on the scoliotic spine may be the cause.

0 Followers
 · 
65 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hydrophobie coatings on silica M41S materials may have the dual benefits of improving their stability in aqueous environments and their adsorption selectivity for solutes such as proteins and vitamins. In this work, the surface of MCM-48 was successfully coated by a gas phase reaction with hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS). Characterisation by gas adsorption showed that the method is highly reproducible. Solid-state NMR results demonstrated that the coating was chemically attached to the surface. The material was much more stable than untreated MCM-48 in aqueous buffer solution for up to 40 days.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sleep disturbances are often associated with depression and mood disorders, and certain manipulations of the sleep-wake cycle are effective as therapeutic interventions in the treatment of depression. Dysregulated circadian rhythms are thereby considered as causal. Circadian rhythms in mammals are mainly regulated by a core biological clock, located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus; its pacemaker activity is regulated by light and nonphotic modulatory pathways, and the driving mechanisms are serotonergic input from the raphe and the hormone melatonin originating from the pineal gland. In line, the concentration of brain serotonin and the levels of 5-HT2C receptors are high and highly expressed there. Agomelatine, a novel antidepressant drug with proven clinical efficacy in major depressive disorder, has a unique mechanism of action; it acts as an agonist at melatonergic MT1 and MT2 receptors and as an antagonist at 5-HT2C receptors. In animals, agomelatine was shown to increase noradrenaline and dopamine (but not serotonin) in the frontal cortex, to resynchronize the sleep-wake cycle in models with disrupted circadian rhythms, and to exhibit a clear antidepressant effect in various animal models of depression. On the basis of the functional relationship between melatonergic and serotonergic signaling in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, and given agomelatine's affinity at melatonergic and 5-HT2C receptors, the therapeutic efficacy of the drug may be due to the potential synergy of its action at these different receptors.
    International Clinical Psychopharmacology 11/2007; 22 Suppl 2:S9-S14. DOI:10.1097/01.yic.0000277957.75852.c7 · 3.10 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Review of the literature on the pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). To discuss the different theories that have appeared on this subject. The pathogenesis of AIS, a condition exclusive to humans, has been the subject of many studies. Over the years, practically every structure of the body has been mentioned in the pathogenesis of AIS; however, the cause of this spinal deformity remains little understood. The pathogenesis of this condition is termed multifactorial. PubMed and Google Scholar electronic databases were searched focused on parameters concerning the pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The search was limited to the English language. No single causative factor for the development of idiopathic scoliosis has been identified, it is thus termed multifactorial. AIS is a complex genetic disorder. The fully erect posture, which is unique to humans, seems to be a prerequisite for the development of AIS. Although any or all of the mentioned factors in this review may play a certain role in the initiation and progression of AIS at a certain stage, the presented material suggests that in the observed deformation, genetics, and the unique mechanics of the fully upright human spine play a decisive role.
    Spine 01/2009; 33(26):2898-908. DOI:10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181891751 · 2.45 Impact Factor