To investigate the change of melatonin receptor mRNA expression in bilateral paravertebral muscles in AIS, congenital scoliosis (CS) and controls in order to analyze its relationship to the pathogenesis of AIS. 20 cases with average age of 15.1 +/- 2.2 years and average Cobb angle of 56.2 degrees +/- 16.1 degrees were included in AIS group. 12 cases with average age of 11.6 +/- 3.2 years and average Cobb angle of 59.2 degrees +/- 33.3 degrees were included in congenital scoliosis (CS) group. 10 cases without scoliosis comprised a control group. The mRNA expression of melatonin receptor subtype MT1 and MT2 were detected by RT-PCR method. The MT2 mRNA expression on the concave side of paravertebral muscle was higher than that on the convex side in AIS and CS groups (p<0.05), but the MT1 mRNA expression showed no significant difference. In the AIS group, the ratio of MT2 mRNA expression on the concave side compared with the convex side in cases with a Cobb angle less than 50 degrees and cases with a Cobb angle greater than 50 degrees showed no significant difference. The melatonin receptor expression in bilateral paravertebral muscles in AIS is asymmetric, which may be a secondary change.
"Studies based on the screening of polymorphism in genes coding for melatonin receptors or enzymes involved in melatonin synthesis in AIS patients and controls have generated disparate results [103–106]. A third category of studies, those looking for possible differences in the expression of melatonin receptors in paravertebral muscles on the concave and convex sides of the spinal column in AIS patients, did not uncover conclusive results [107, 108]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study analyzes the results of clinical trials of treatments with melatonin conducted in children, mostly focused on sleep disorders of different origin. Melatonin is beneficial not only in the treatment of dyssomnias, especially delayed sleep phase syndrome, but also on sleep disorders present in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity, autism spectrum disorders, and, in general, in all sleep disturbances associated with mental, neurologic, or other medical disorders. Sedative properties of melatonin have been used in diagnostic situations requiring sedation or as a premedicant in children undergoing anesthetic procedures. Epilepsy and febrile seizures are also susceptible to treatment with melatonin, alone or associated with conventional antiepileptic drugs. Melatonin has been also used to prevent the progression in some cases of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. In newborns, and particularly those delivered preterm, melatonin has been used to reduce oxidative stress associated with sepsis, asphyxia, respiratory distress, or surgical stress. Finally, the administration of melatonin, melatonin analogues, or melatonin precursors to the infants through the breast-feeding, or by milk formula adapted for day and night, improves their nocturnal sleep. Side effects of melatonin treatments in children have not been reported. Although the above-described results are promising, specific studies to resolve the problem of dosage, formulations, and length of treatment are necessary.
International Journal of Pediatrics 06/2011; 2011(1687-9740):892624. DOI:10.1155/2011/892624
"The ratio of MT2 mRNA expression on the concave side compared with the convex side in cases with Cobb angle >50° and cases with Cobb angle <50° showed no significant difference. The melatonin receptor expression in bilateral paravertebral muscles in AIS is asymmetric, which may be a secondary change . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cause of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in humans remains obscure and probably multifactorial. At present, there is no proven method or test available to identify children or adolescent at risk of developing AIS or identify which of the affected individuals are at risk of progression. Reported associations are linked in pathogenesis rather than etiologic factors. Melatonin may play a role in the pathogenesis of scoliosis (neuroendocrine hypothesis), but at present, the data available cannot clearly show the role of melatonin in producing scoliosis in humans. The data regarding human melatonin levels are mixed at best, and the melatonin deficiency as a causative factor in the etiology of scoliosis cannot be supported. It will be an important issue of future research to investigate the role of melatonin in human biology, the clinical efficacy, and safety of melatonin under different pathological situations. Research is needed to better define the role of all factors in AIS development.
"A third category of studies have focused on the possible changes in melatonin receptors in AIS patients. The expression of MT2 melatonin receptors in bilateral paravertebral muscles in AIS and congenital scoliosis is asymmetric, being higher in muscles on concave side than that on convex side of the spinal column in AIS, but MT1 expression was not significantly different [97, 98]. These differences in the expression of melatonin receptors have been considered as secondary to the bilateral asymmetry due to force exerted on the scoliotic spine and not important in the pathogenesis of AIS [97, 98]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this paper was to analyze the data supporting the possible role of melatonin on bone metabolism and its repercussion in the etiology and treatment of bone pathologies such as the osteoporosis and the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Melatonin may prevent bone degradation and promote bone formation through mechanisms involving both melatonin receptor-mediated and receptor-independent actions. The three principal mechanisms of melatonin effects on bone function could be: (a) the promotion of the osteoblast differentiation and activity; (b) an increase in the osteoprotegerin expression by osteoblasts, thereby preventing the differentiation of osteoclasts; (c) scavenging of free radicals generated by osteoclast activity and responsible for bone resorption. A variety of in vitro and in vivo experimental studies, although with some controversial results, point toward a possible role of melatonin deficits in the etiology of osteoporosis and AIS and open a new field related to the possible therapeutic use of melatonin in these bone diseases.
Journal of Osteoporosis 06/2010; 2010:830231. DOI:10.4061/2010/830231
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