Article

An overview of evidence for a causal relation between iron deficiency during development and deficits in cognitive or behavioral function.

Nutrition and Metabolism Center, Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, CA, USA.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.92). 04/2007; 85(4):931-45.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This review, intended for a broad scientific readership, summarizes evidence relevant to whether a causal relation exists between dietary iron deficiency with (ID+A) or without (ID-A) anemia during development and deficits in subsequent cognitive or behavioral performance. An overview of expert opinion and major evidence in humans and animals is provided. Cognitive and behavioral effects observed in humans with ID-A and in animals with ID+/-A are provided in tables. The degree to which 5 conditions of causality are satisfied and whether deleterious effects of ID-A might be expected to occur are discussed. On the basis of the existing literature, our major conclusions are as follows. Although most of the 5 conditions of causality (association, plausible biological mechanisms, dose response, ability to manipulate the effect, and specificity of cause and effect) are partially satisfied in humans, animals, or both, a causal connection has not been clearly established. In animals, deficits in motor activity are consistently associated with severe ID+A, but adverse effects on performance in tests that target cognitive function have not been clearly shown. Resistance to iron treatment was observed in most trials of children <2 y of age with ID+A, but not in older children. Similar observations were made in rodents when ID+A occurred before rather than after weaning. In children >2 y of age and in adolescents with ID-A, evidence suggests cognitive or behavioral deficits; however, the surprisingly small number of studies conducted in either humans or animals prevents a thorough assessment.

0 Followers
 · 
139 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have previously demonstrated that rats given iron neonatally presented memory deficits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of desferoxamine, a metal chelating agent, on memory deficits in an iron overload model in rats. Male rats received vehicle or iron orally at postnatal days 12-14 and desferoxamine (30 or 300 mg/kg) in the adulthood. After desferoxamine treatment, they were trained in a novel-object recognition task. Iron-treated rats showed recognition memory impairments when compared to controls. Iron-treated rats that received desferoxamine 300 mg/kg, showed normal recognition memory, suggesting that desferoxamine can reverse recognition memory deficits associated with iron accumulation. Further research is required to examine whether the findings from animal models of iron overload have implications for humans.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 10/2007; 570(1-3):111-4. DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2007.06.002 · 2.68 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional disorder in the world. The aim of this questionnaire based survey study was to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in reproductive age women, and their relation to variables such as age, marital status, education with those attending obstetrics and gynecology outpatient of King Faisal University Health Centre in Al-Ahsa in eastern region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This study was conducted for the period of 6 month staring from September 2012 to February 2013. The questionnaire had three sections on personal information: their educational indicators, gynecological clinical history, and hematological indices. The average age was 25.97±7.17 years. According to the gynecological clinical history of the respondents, 15 (48.4%) respondents were pregnant while 16 (51.6%) were not pregnant. There was significant effect of pregnancy status on Hb level. Majority of the anemic respondents 15/17 were married. Moreover 14/17 anemic women were experiencing severe menstrual bleeding, 11/17 respondents were pregnant. 54.8% of respondents were hemoglobin deficient while 77.4% were found to have low Hct. In 87.1 % of the respondents, transferrin saturation was found to be abnormal. In this study iron deficiency anemia is quite prevalent in the university community especially among pregnant women. The fetus's and newborn infant's iron status depends on the iron status of the pregnant woman and therefore, iron deficiency in the mother-to-be means that growing fetus probably will be iron deficient as well. Thus iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy in well-educated set up needs more attention by the concerned authorities.
    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 07/2014; 11(2):339-42. DOI:10.4314/ajtcam.v11i2.19 · 0.56 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dopaminergic transmission plays a critical role in working memory (WM). Mean diffusivity (MD) is a sensitive and unique neuroimaging tool for detecting microstructural differences particularly in the areas of the dopaminergic system. Despite previous investigation of the effects of WM training (WMT) on dopamine receptor binding potentials, the effects of WMT on MD remain unknown. In this study, we investigated these effects in young adult subjects who either underwent WMT or received no intervention for 4 weeks. Before and after the intervention or no-intervention periods, subjects underwent scanning sessions in diffusion-weighted imaging to measure MD. Compared with no intervention, WMT resulted in an increase in MD in the bilateral caudate, right putamen, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), right substantia nigra, and ventral tegmental area. Furthermore, the increase in performance on WMT tasks was significantly positively correlated with the mean increase in MD in the clusters of the left DLPFC and of the right ACC. These results suggest that WMT caused microstructural changes in the regions of the dopaminergic system in a way that is usually interpreted as a reduction in neural components.
    Brain Structure and Function 07/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00429-014-0845-2 · 4.57 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
8 Downloads
Available from