Systematic study of association of four GABAergic genes: glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 gene, glutamic acid decarboxylase 2 gene, GABA(B) receptor 1 gene and GABA(A) receptor subunit beta2 gene, with schizophrenia using a universal DNA microarray.
ABSTRACT Several studies have suggested the dysfunction of the GABAergic system as a risk factor in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. In the present study, case-control association analysis was conducted in four GABAergic genes: two glutamic acid decarboxylase genes (GAD1 and GAD2), a GABA(A) receptor subunit beta2 gene (GABRB2) and a GABA(B) receptor 1 gene (GABBR1). Using a universal DNA microarray procedure we genotyped a total of 20 SNPs on the above four genes in a study involving 292 patients and 286 controls of Chinese descent. Statistically significant differences were observed in the allelic frequencies of the rs187269C/T polymorphism in the GABRB2 gene (P=0.0450, chi(2)=12.40, OR=1.65) and the -292A/C polymorphism in the GAD1 gene (P=0.0450, chi(2)=14.64 OR=1.77). In addition, using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), we discovered differences in the U251 nuclear protein binding to oligonucleotides representing the -292 SNP on the GAD1 gene, which suggests that the -292C allele has reduced transcription factor binding efficiency compared with the 292A allele. Using the multifactor-dimensionality reduction method (MDR), we found that the interactions among the rs187269C/T polymorphism in the GABRB2 gene, the -243A/G polymorphism in the GAD2 gene and the 27379C/T and 661C/T polymorphisms in the GAD1 gene revealed a significant association with schizophrenia (P<0.001). These findings suggest that the GABRB2 and GAD1 genes alone and the combined effects of the polymorphisms in the four GABAergic system genes may confer susceptibility to the development of schizophrenia in the Chinese population.
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ABSTRACT: The GABA synthetic enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)65 is critically involved in the activity-dependent regulation of GABAergic inhibition in the central nervous system. It is also required for the maturation of the GABAergic system during adolescence, a phase that is critical for the development of several neuropsychiatric diseases. Mice bearing a null mutation of the GAD65 gene develop hyperexcitability of the amygdala and hippocampus, and a phenotype of increased anxiety and pathological fear memory reminiscent of post-traumatic stress disorder. Although genetic association of GAD65 in human has not yet been reported, these findings are in line with observations of reduced GABAergic function in these brain regions of anxiety disorder patients. The particular value of GAD65(−/−) mice thus lies in modeling the effects of reduced GABAergic function in the mature nervous system. The expression of GAD65 and a second GAD isozyme, GAD67, are differentially regulated in response to stress in limbic brain areas suggesting that by controlling GABAergic inhibition these enzymes determine the vulnerability for the development of pathological anxiety and other stress-induced phenotypes. In fact, we could recently show that GAD65 haplodeficiency, which results in delayed postnatal increase of GABA levels, provides resilience to juvenile-stress induced anxiety to GAD65(+/−) mice thus foiling the increased fear and anxiety in homozygous GAD65(−/−) mice.Genes Brain and Behavior 09/2014; · 3.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: GABAergic dysfunction has been strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In this study, we analyzed the expression levels of several GABAergic genes in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of postmortem subjects with schizophrenia (n=21) and a comparison group of individuals without a history of psychiatric illness (n=18). Our analyses revealed a significant sex by diagnosis effect, along with significant differences in GABAergic gene expression based on medication status. Analyses revealed that in male groups, the expression of GABAergic genes was generally lower in schizophrenia cases compared to the controls, with significantly lower expression levels of GABA-Aα5, GABA-Aβ1, and GABA-Aε. In females, the expression of GABAergic genes was higher in the schizophrenia cases, with significantly higher expression of the GABA-Aβ1 and GAD67 genes. Analysis of the effect of medication in the schizophrenia subjects revealed significantly higher expression of GABA-Aα1-3, GABA-Aβ2, GABA-Aγ2, and GAD67 in the medicated group compared to the unmedicated group. These data show that sex differences in the expression of GABAergic genes occur in the ACC in schizophrenia. Therefore, our data support previous findings of GABAergic dysfunction in schizophrenia and emphasize the importance of considering sex in analyses of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Sex differences in the GABAergic regulation of ACC function may contribute to the differences observed in the symptoms of male and female patients with schizophrenia. In addition, our findings indicate that antipsychotic medications may alter GABAergic signaling in the ACC, supporting the potential of GABAergic targets for the development of novel antipsychotic medication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Schizophrenia Research 02/2015; · 4.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Evidence for an intrinsic relationship between sleep, cognition and the symptomatic manifestations of schizophrenia is accumulating. This review presents evidence for the possible utility of GABAB receptor agonists for the treatment of subjective and objective sleep abnormalities related to schizophrenia. At the phenotypic level, sleep disturbance occurs in 16–30% of patients with schizophrenia and is related to reduced quality of life and poor coping skills. On the neurophysiological level, studies suggest that sleep deficits reflect a core component of schizophrenia. Specifically, slow-wave sleep deficits, which are inversely correlated with cognition scores, are seen. Moreover, sleep plays an increasingly well documented role in memory consolidation in schizophrenia. Correlations of slow-wave sleep deficits with impaired reaction time and declarative memory have also been reported. Thus, both behavioural insomnia and sleep architecture are critical therapeutic targets in patients with schizophrenia. However, long-term treatment with anti-psychotics often results in residual sleep dysfunction and does not improve slow-wave sleep, and adjunctive GABAA receptor modulators, such as ben-zodiazepines and zolpidem, can impair sleep architecture and cognition in schizophrenia. GABAB receptor agonists have therapeutic potential in schizophrenia. These agents have minimal effect on rapid eye movement sleep while increasing slow-wave sleep. Preclinical associations with increased expression of genes related to slow-wave sleep production and circadian rhythm function have also been reported. GABAB receptor deficits result in a sustained hyper-dopaminergic state and can be reversed by a GABAB receptor agonist. Genetic, postmortem and electrophysiological studies also associate GABAB receptors with schizophrenia. While studies thus far have not shown significant effects, prior focus on the use of GABAB receptor agonists has been on the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, with minimal investigation of GABAB receptor agonists such as baclofen or γ-hydroxybutyric acid and their effects on sleep architecture, cognition and negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Further study is needed.CNS Drugs 01/2009; 23(8). · 4.38 Impact Factor