The protective effects of PUGNAc on cardiac function after trauma-hemorrhage are mediated via increased protein O-GlcNAc levels.
ABSTRACT We have previously shown that administration of glucosamine after trauma-hemorrhage (TH) improved cardiac output and organ perfusion, and this was associated with increased levels of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) on proteins in the heart and brain. An alternative means of increasing O-GlcNAc levels is by inhibition of O-linked N-acetylglucosaminidase, which catalyzes the removal of N-acetylglucosamine from proteins, with O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-glucopyranosylidene) amino-N-phenylcarbamate (PUGNAc). The goal of this study, therefore, was to determine whether PUGNAc administration after TH also improves recovery of organ perfusion and function. Fasted male rats were bled to and maintained at a mean arterial blood pressure of 40 mmHg for 90 min, followed by fluid resuscitation. Intravenous administration of PUGNAc (200 micromol/kg body weight) 30 min after the onset of resuscitation significantly improved cardiac output compared with the vehicle controls (12.3 +/- 1.3 mL/min per 100 g body weight vs. 25.5 +/- 2.0 mL/min per 100 g body weight; P < 0.05), decreased total peripheral resistance (6.6 +/- 0.8 mmHg/mL per minute per 100 g body weight vs. 3.7 +/- 0.3 mmHg/mL per minute per 100 g body weight; P < 0.05), and increased perfusion of critical organ systems, including the kidney and liver, determined at 2 h after the end of resuscitation. Treatment with PUGNAc also attenuated the TH-induced increase in plasma IL-6 levels (864 +/- 112 pg/mL vs. 392 +/- 188 pg/mL; P < 0.05) and TNF-alpha levels (216 +/- 21 pg/mL vs. 94 +/- 11 pg/mL; P < 0.05) and significantly increased O-GlcNAc levels in the heart, liver, and kidney. Thus, PUGNAc, like glucosamine, improves cardiac function and organ perfusion and reduced the level of circulating IL-6 and TNF-alpha after TH. The similar effects of glucosamine and PUGNAc support the notion that the protection associated with both interventions is mediated via increased protein O-GlcNAc levels.
Article: O-GlcNAc modification of NFκB p65 inhibits TNF-α-induced inflammatory mediator expression in rat aortic smooth muscle cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We have shown that glucosamine (GlcN) or O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranosylidene)amino-N-phenylcarbamate (PUGNAc) treatment augments O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) protein modification and attenuates inflammatory mediator expression, leukocyte infiltration and neointima formation in balloon injured rat carotid arteries and have identified the arterial smooth muscle cell (SMC) as the target cell in the injury response. NFκB signaling has been shown to mediate the expression of inflammatory genes and neointima formation in injured arteries. Phosphorylation of the p65 subunit of NFκB is required for the transcriptional activation of NFκB. This study tested the hypothesis that GlcN or PUGNAc treatment protects vascular SMCs against tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α induced inflammatory stress by enhancing O-GlcNAcylation and inhibiting TNF-α induced phosphorylation of NFκB p65, thus inhibiting NFκB signaling. Quiescent rat aortic SMCs were pretreated with GlcN (5 mM), PUGNAc (10(-4) M) or vehicle and then stimulated with TNF-α (10 ng/ml). Both treatments inhibited TNF-α-induced expression of chemokines [cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-2β and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1] and adhesion molecules [vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 and P-Selectin]. Both treatments inhibited TNF-α induced NFκB p65 activation and promoter activity, increased NFκB p65 O-GlcNAcylation and inhibited NFκB p65 phosphorylation at Serine 536, thus promoting IκBα binding to NFκB p65. There is a reciprocal relationship between O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation of NFκB p65, such that increased NFκB p65 O-GlcNAc modification inhibits TNF-α-Induced expression of inflammatory mediators through inhibition of NFκB p65 signaling. These findings provide a mechanistic basis for our previous observations that GlcN and PUGNAc treatments inhibit inflammation and remodeling induced by acute endoluminal arterial injury.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(8):e24021. · 4.09 Impact Factor