Racial differences in caregiving patterns, caregiver emotional function, and sources of emotional support following traumatic brain injury.
ABSTRACT Compare white and African American caregivers of people with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) regarding caregiving patterns, emotional function and life satisfaction, and preferred supports.
Prospective, observational study; 1, 2, or 5 years post-TBI.
Six TBI model systems. Participants: Two hundred fifty-six caregivers (195 white and 61 African American).
Brief Symptom Inventory-18, Satisfaction With Life Scale.
Races differed as to kinship patterns, with more white caregivers including spouses and more African Americans including "other relatives." African Americans spent significantly more time in direct caregiving, and reported more depression. African American TBI survivors were significantly more disabled than whites, which appeared to account for emotional function differences. Whites were more likely to use professional services for emotional support.
Across races, TBI caregiver emotional health is affected by the functional level of the survivor. African American caregivers may be at risk for worse emotional consequences due to worse survivor outcomes, yet may underutilize professional services.
- SourceAvailable from: Kirsi Coco
Dataset: Coco et al 2011-6
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ABSTRACT: This systematic literature review describes how adult traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients' family members received support. The research question was "What in healthcare constitutes support for a TBI patient's family members?" The data for this review were based on 22 empirical studies published in scientific journals in 2004-2010, which were found in the Cinahl, PsychINFO, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases. The review includes the study design, sample, method, and main results. The data were analyzed using content analysis. Social support for brain injury patients' family members was divided into 3 main categories: informational, emotional, and practical support. The subcategories of informational support were information about the patient's symptoms, information about care, quality of information, and information about the prognosis. The subcategories of emotional support were taking emotions into account, caring, listening, and respecting. The subcategories of practical support were support in decision making, promoting the welfare of the family, encouraging family members to participate in care, cooperation with the family members, and counseling services. The results are available for nurses in practical work. The review offers nurses a structure for supporting TBI patients' families, and according to this review, supporting TBI patients' families appears to have many dimensions. The results suggest that nurses should be informed that it is important for family members to know the facts about TBI to understand the condition and to receive practical advice on how to help their significant other with TBI with daily activities. In addition, the results provide a basis for further research and development of interventions that support brain injury patients and their family members.12/2011; 43(6):337-48. DOI:10.1097/JNN.0b013e318234ea0b
Conference Paper: Smooth motion of a rigid body in 2D and 3D[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Given measurements of the positions of a number of marked points on a rigid body at a sequence of times t<sub>i</sub> (i=0, 1, ..., n), we represent the motion of the body, assuming this motion to be smooth, by means of piecewise-rational curves, one through each sequence of positions, sharing a common denominator and having the property that the distance between these curves always remains constant. We consider in detail the motion in 2D and 3D of a rigid rod marked at each endInformation Visualization, 1997. Proceedings., 1997 IEEE Conference on; 09/1997