Article

Naltrexone and disulfiram in patients with alcohol dependence and current depression

Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States
Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology (Impact Factor: 3.76). 05/2007; 27(2):160-5. DOI: 10.1097/jcp.0b13e3180337fcb
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although disulfiram and naltrexone have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of alcoholism, no medications have been approved for individuals with alcohol dependence and comorbid psychiatric disorders. In particular, the effect of these medications on alcohol use outcomes and on specific psychiatric symptoms is still unknown in patients with the most common co-occurring disorder, major depression.
Two hundred fifty-four patients with a major Axis I psychiatric disorder and comorbid alcohol dependence were treated for 12 weeks in an outpatient medication study conducted at 3 Veterans Administration outpatient clinics. Randomization included (1) open randomization to disulfiram or no disulfiram, and (2) double-blind randomization to naltrexone or placebo. This resulted in 4 groups: (1) naltrexone alone, (2) placebo alone, (3) disulfiram and naltrexone, and (4) disulfiram and placebo. Primary outcomes were measures of alcohol use. Secondary outcomes included psychiatric symptoms assessed by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, alcohol craving, gamma-glutamyltransferase levels, and adverse events.
One hundred thirty-nine subjects (54.7%) met the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for major depression. There was no relationship between the diagnosis of depression and medication treatment on alcohol use outcomes, psychiatric symptoms, or the reporting of side effects for these medications. There was a significant interaction between diagnosis, medication group, and craving, where subjects with depression on disulfram reported lower craving over time than subjects with depression on naltrexone.
The results suggest that disulfiram and naltrexone are safe pharmacotherapeutic agents for dually diagnosed individuals with depression for the treatment of alcohol use disorders.

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    • "However in the present analyses we were able to mitigate the loss of power issue by using repeated measures analyses on up to nine time-points per subject. Lastly the potential influence of naltrexone on both drinking and depression outcomes in this study was not known, although it is now suggested naltrexone has little effect on depressive symptoms (Petrakis et al., 2007). "
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