Zonisamide as treatment for seizures.

University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, USA.
The Nurse Practitioner 05/2007; 32(4):15-7. DOI: 10.1097/01.NPR.0000266504.61564.c3
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of zonisamide monotherapy in a cohort of children and adolescents with various types of epilepsy. Retrospective review of charts of our institution from 2001 through 2004 identified 69 children (19 males and 50 females, mean age 13.2 years) with epilepsy on zonisamide monotherapy. Seizure count and side effect profile were maintained during therapy. Sixty-one percent had idiopathic generalized epilepsy, 4% symptomatic generalized epilepsy, and 35% partial-onset epilepsy. Zonisamide was the first-line and second-line monotherapy for 32% and 68% of patients, respectively. The mean duration of follow-up on treatment was 22 months (range 3-48 months). The overall efficacy of zonisamide was 75.4% (> or = 50% seizure frequency reduction: good responders). Sixty-seven percent of good responders became seizure-free. Seventy-nine percent of patients with partial epilepsy and 71% with generalized epilepsy were good responders, of whom 79% and 63% were free of seizure, respectively. Eighteen (26%) patients developed side effects: weight loss (9), cognitive impairment (3), sleepiness (3), dizziness (2), and decreased appetite (1). In seven patients (10%), zonisamide had to be discontinued: four due to side effects and three because of poor seizure control. Zonisamide was demonstrated to be effective as monotherapy in children with epilepsy.
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    ABSTRACT: Long-term efficacy, tolerability and safety of antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy is essential given the chronic nature of epilepsy. Zonisamide (Zonegran), a novel AED with a broad range of mechanisms of action contributing to its antiseizure efficacy, has been evaluated extensively for the long-term management of epilepsy. Open-label extension studies in the United States and Europe suggest continued efficacy of zonisamide in long-term treatment without development of adverse events further to those seen in registration studies. Baseline seizure frequency is reduced by approximately 40-70% during long-term treatment for up to 2 years, and 30-50% of patients attain >or=50% reduction in seizure frequency across all categories of seizure and durations of treatment. Preliminary data indicate a progressive decline in seizure frequency with continued zonisamide treatment. Zonisamide is well tolerated in long-term use, with a trend towards decreasing incidence of generally mild adverse events over time and a low rate of withdrawal during chronic use. Nephrolithiasis and other serious adverse events are infrequent, and can be minimised by appropriate management and patient education. This profile of maintained efficacy, tolerability and safety during sustained administration in combination with other AEDs supports zonisamide as a valuable adjunctive agent in the long-term management of refractory partial epilepsy.
    Epilepsy Research 02/2006; 68 Suppl 2:S17-24. DOI:10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2005.11.006 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Zonisamide is a novel anticonvulsant that is structurally and mechanistically unique, compared with other antiepilepsy drugs. Available in Japan and South Korea since 1989, it was approved in the United States in the year 2000 as adjunctive therapy for partial seizures in adults. There has been extensive clinical trial and clinical practice experience with zonisamide therapy in Japanese children. Open-label data from pediatric clinical trials conducted in Japan suggest that zonisamide is well tolerated and effective against partial- and generalized-onset seizures in children. Despite this wealth of open-label data, no formal pharmacokinetic studies and only one well-controlled trial of zonisamide's efficacy and safety in Japanese children have been completed to date. No controlled clinical trials of zonisamide in children have been completed in the United States or Europe. Additional controlled trials in children with partial- or generalized-onset seizures, infantile spasms, and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome are warranted to further delineate zonisamide's broad spectrum of efficacy and tolerability in children.
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