Characterization of extremity wounds in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom.
ABSTRACT Extremity wounds and fractures traditionally comprise the majority of traumatic injuries in US armed conflicts. Little has been published regarding the extremity wounding patterns and fracture distribution in the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. The intent of this study was to describe the distribution of extremity fractures during this current conflict.
Descriptive epidemiologic study.
The Joint Theater Trauma Registry was queried for all US service members receiving treatment for wounds (ICD-9 codes 800-960) sustained in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) from October 2001 through January 2005. Returned-to-duty and nonbattle injuries were excluded. Wounds were classified according to region and type. Extremity wounds were analyzed in detail and compared to published results from previous conflicts.
A total of 1281 soldiers sustained 3575 extremity combat wounds. Fifty-three percent of these were penetrating soft-tissue wounds and 26% were fractures. Of the 915 fractures, 758 (82%) were open fractures. The 915 fractures were evenly distributed between the upper (461, 50%) and lower extremities (454, 50%). The most common fracture in the upper extremity was in the hand (36%) and in the lower extremity was the tibia and fibula (48%). Explosive munitions accounted for 75% of the mechanisms of injury.
The burden of wounds sustained in OIF/OEF is extremity injuries, specifically soft-tissue wounds and fractures. These results are similar to the reported casualties from previous wars.
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ABSTRACT: Background Extremity injury in the military during Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) has caused significant mortality and morbidity. Belmont et al.  found the rate of musculoskeletal injury needing evacuation from the ''combat environment'' to be 77%, 6% of which were extremity amputation. Numerous studies have analysed the injury patterns and amputation rates of injured service members [1–11]. However, the current literature does not adequately address the character-istics of or impact of disability associated with upper extremity amputation on the individual service members. Upper extremity amputations in OIF/OEF represent 14–50% of all amputations returning from the ''combat environment,'' causing significant long-term functional impairment and disability [5,7,12]. In an analysis of service members' disability ratings by Cross et al. , upper extremity amputations were associated with the highest disability ratings. However, the injuries, outcomes, and disabling conditions of the isolated, combat-related upper extremity amputees, in comparison to the isolated lower extremity amputees and the general amputee population have not been analysed. The purpose of this study is to more closely characterise the injuries, outcomes, and disabling conditions of isolated, Background: The purpose of this study is to characterise the injuries, outcomes, and disabling conditions of the isolated, combat-related upper extremity amputees in comparison to the isolated lower extremity amputees and the general amputee population. Methods: A retrospective study of all major extremity amputations sustained by the US military service members from 1 October 2001 to 30 July 2011 was conducted. Data from the Department of Defense Trauma Registry, the Armed Forces Health Longitudinal Technology Application, and the Physical Evaluation Board Liaison Offices were queried in order to obtain injury characteristics, demographic information, treatment characteristics, and disability outcome data. Results: A total of 1315 service members who sustained 1631 amputations were identified; of these, 173 service members were identified as sustaining an isolated upper extremity amputation. Isolated upper extremity and isolated lower extremity amputees had similar Injury Severity Scores (21 vs. 20). There were significantly more non-battle-related upper extremity amputees than the analysed general amputation population (39% vs. 14%). Isolated upper extremity amputees had significantly greater combined disability rating (82.9% vs. 62.3%) and were more likely to receive a disability rating >80% (69% vs. 53%). No upper extremity amputees were found fit for duty; only 12 (8.3%) were allowed continuation on active duty; and significantly more upper extremity amputees were permanently retired than lower extremity amputees (82% vs. 74%). The most common non-upper extremity amputation-related disabling condition was post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (17%). Upper extremity amputees were significantly more likely to have disability from PTSD, 13% vs. 8%, and loss of nerve function, 11% vs. 6%, than the general amputee population. Discussion/conclusion: Upper extremity amputees account for 14% of all amputees during the Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom conflicts. These amputees have significant disability and are unable to return to duty. Much of this disability is from their amputation; however, other conditions greatly contribute to their morbidity.Injury 06/2014; 45(6):965-969. DOI:10.1016/j.injury.2014.02.009 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The need for a suitable tissue-engineered scaffold that can be used to heal load-bearing segmental bone defects (SBDs) is both immediate and increasing. During the past 30 years, various ceramic and polymer scaffolds have been investigated for this application. More recently, while composite scaffolds built using a combination of ceramics and polymeric materials are being investigated in a greater number, very few products have progressed from laboratory benchtop studies to preclinical testing in animals. This review is based on an exhaustive literature search of various composite scaffolds designed to serve as bone regenerative therapies. We analyzed the benefits and drawbacks of different composite scaffold manufacturing techniques, the properties of commonly used ceramics and polymers, and the properties of currently investigated synthetic composite grafts. To follow, a comprehensive review of in vivo models used to test composite scaffolds in SBDs is detailed to serve as a guide to design appropriate translational studies and to identify the challenges that need to be overcome in scaffold design for successful translation. This includes selecting the animal type, determining the anatomical location within the animals, choosing the correct study duration, and finally, an overview of scaffold performance assessment.01/2013; 2013:458253. DOI:10.1155/2013/458253
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ABSTRACT: Open fractures are common in battlefields, motor vehicle accidents, gunshot wounds, sports injuries, and high-energy falls. Such fractures are treated using hydroxyapatite (HA)-based bone graft substitutes. However, open fracture wounds are highly susceptible to bacterial infections. Hence, this study was focused on incorporating antibacterial properties to HA using silver (Ag) carrying self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). Also, the stability of Ag carrying SAMs on HA was investigated under sterilization and physiological conditions. Initially, the -COOH terminated phosphonic acid SAMs of two different chain lengths (11 carbon atoms - shorter chain and 16 carbon atoms - longer chain) were deposited on HA. Antibacterial SAMs (ASAMs) were prepared by chemically attaching Ag to shorter and longer chain SAMs coated HA. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and contact angle goniometry collectively confirmed the attachment of Ag onto SAMs coated HA. The bacterial adhesion study showed that the adherence of Staphylococcus aureus was significantly reduced on ASAMs coated HA when compared to control-HA. The stability studies showed that gas plasma, dry heat and autoclave degraded most of the ASAMs on HA. UV irradiation did not damage the shorter chain ASAMs as vigorously as other treatments, while it degraded the longer chain ASAMs completely. Ethylene oxide treatment did not degrade the longer chain ASAMs unlike all other treatments but it severely damaged the shorter chain ASAMs. Both shorter and longer chain ASAMs significantly desorbed from the HA surfaces under physiological conditions although longer chain ASAMs exhibited better stability than shorter chain ASAMs. This study demonstrated the potential for using ASAMs to provide antibacterial properties to HA and the need for developing techniques to improve stability of SAMs under sterilization and physiological conditions.Acta biomaterialia 02/2010; 6(8):3242-55. DOI:10.1016/j.actbio.2010.02.032 · 5.68 Impact Factor