Self-reported mechanical problems during condom use and semen exposure. Comparison of two randomized trials in the United States of America and Brazil.
ABSTRACT To compare self-reported condom use problems and objectively determined semen exposure in 2 populations.
Two randomized crossover trials in the United States and Brazil compared the failure rates of the female condom (FC) and male condom (MC). Participants used both condom types, completed condom-specific questionnaires to report problems, and collected precoital and postcoital samples of vaginal fluid. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was detected by immunoassay.
Problems with condom use were reported less frequently in the Brazilian study (rate difference: FC = 24%, P <0.0001, MC = 5%, P = 0.003). By contrast, the PSA detection rates were similar for both the FC and the MC (rate difference: FC = 2%, MC = 1%, not significant). These results suggest that the PSA detection rate was similar in the 2 study groups and that self-reported problems may be a less reliable measure of condom failure.
Use of biomarkers of condom failure like PSA may help to strengthen the validity of studies promoting behavior change for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases.
SourceAvailable from: Margaret Christine Snead[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Abstract Biomarkers of semen exposure have been used in studies investigating the safety and efficacy of barrier methods of contraception. They have been used as objective indicators of semen exposure when studying sexual behaviors and in human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection research interventions where participants are advised to avoid unprotected sex. Semen biomarkers have also been used to assess or validate self-reported sexual behaviors or condom use in reproductive health settings. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and Y chromosome DNA (Yc-DNA) have each been evaluated in the past as semen biomarkers and are the most widely used in the field. While both are considered reliable for evaluating exposure to semen, each has unique characteristics. In this report, we summarize the literature and provide some considerations for reproductive health researchers who are interested in using PSA or Yc-DNA as semen biomarkers. We also synthesize our previous published work on the optimal conditions of collecting and storing specimens and assay performance in the presence of other vaginal products that may influence various assays. Semen biomarkers are innovative and promising tools to further study and better understand women's reproductive and sexual health and behavior. More research is needed to better understand the strengths, limitations, and optimal performance conditions of specific assays in vivo.Journal of Women's Health 09/2014; 23(10). DOI:10.1089/jwh.2014.5018 · 1.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A simple process for the deposition of CuInSe2 thin films was described. The CuInSe2 compound was prepared by selenization of Cu-In alloy precursors, which were electrodeposited at a constant current. The selenized precursors were compacted and then annealed. The films were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results indicate that single-phase CuInSe2 is formed at 250°C and its crystallinity of this phase is improved as the annealing temperature rises. The losses of In occur in selenization process. The dense CuInSe2 film with comparatively smooth surface can be obtained by compaction under the pressure of 200 MPa.International Journal of Minerals Metallurgy and Materials 08/2009; 16(4):439-443. DOI:10.1016/S1674-4799(09)60077-7 · 0.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Developing an objective, reliable method to determine semen exposure in cervicovaginal fluids is important for accurately studying the efficacy of vaginal microbicides and contraceptives. Y-chromosome biomarkers offer better stability, sensitivity, and specificity than protein biomarkers. TSPY4 belongs to the TSPY (testis-specific protein Y-encoded) family of homologous genes on the Y-chromosome. Using a multiplex PCR amplifying TSPY4, amelogenin, and Sex-determining region in the Y chromosome (SRY), our objective was to determine whether a gene in the TSPY family was a more sensitive marker of semen exposure in cervicovaginal fluids than SRY. STUDY DESIGN: The multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed using sperm and vaginal epithelial (female) DNA. Diluted sperm DNA and mixed male/female DNA was used to determine the sensitivity of the multiplex PCR. Potential interference of TSPY4 amplification by components in cervicovaginal and seminal fluids was determined. TSPY4 and SRY amplification was also investigated in women participating in a separate IRB-approved clinical study in which cervicovaginal swab DNA was collected before semen exposure and at various time points after exposure. RESULTS: TSPY4, SRY, and amelogenin were amplified in sperm DNA, but only amelogenin in female DNA. The limit of sperm DNA from which TSPY4 could be amplified was lower than SRY (4 pg vs 80 pg). TSPY4 could also be amplified from mixed male/female DNA. Amplification was not affected by cervicovaginal and seminal components. Using cervicovaginal swab DNA from three women before and after semen exposure, TSPY4 was detected up to 72 h post exposure while SRY detection was observed up to 24-48 h. TSPY4 was detected up to 7 days post exposure in one out of three women. CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated that TSPY4 is a new sensitive, and sperm-specific biomarker. The multiplex PCR incorporating this new biomarker has potential to be an objective measure for determining semen exposure in clinical trials of vaginal products such as contraceptives and HIV pre/post-exposure prophylaxis agents.Contraception 12/2012; DOI:10.1016/j.contraception.2012.11.022 · 2.93 Impact Factor