Metabolic syndrome predicts hospitalization in hemodialysis patients: a prospective Asian cohort study.
ABSTRACT Metabolic syndrome (MS) increases morbidity and mortality in the general population. The effects of individual components of MS differ in hemodialysis (HD) patients, but the composite effects of MS in this population are unknown.
We performed a prospective, cohort study including 235 HD patients who were followed up for 3 years. We used modified Asian criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) to define the presence of MS, and compared the hospitalizations and deaths in patients with and without MS.
Patients with MS had a lower hospitalization-free ratio, greater annual hospitalization days and frequency than those without MS. The relative risk of the presence of MS was 1.669 in predicting first hospitalization for all causes.
The modified Asian criteria for MS successfully predicted the risk of hospitalization as compared with NCEP ATP III criteria in HD patients.
- Nutrition 12/1996; 13(1):65-65. · 2.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The increased health risks associated with obesity have been found to occur in Asians at lower body mass indices (BMIs). To determine the optimal cut-off values for overweight or obesity in Taiwan, we examined the relationships between four anthropometric indices and cardiovascular risk factors. The data were collected from four health-screening centers from 1998 to 2000 in Taiwan. Included were 55 563 subjects (26 359 men and 29 204 women, mean age=37.3+/-10.9 and 37.0+/-11.1 y, respectively). None had known major systemic diseases or were taking medication. Individual body weight, height, waist circumference (WC), and a series of tests related to cardiovascular risk (blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) were assessed and their relationships were examined. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to find out the optimal cut-off values of various anthropometric indices to predict hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. Of the four anthropometric indices we studied, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) in women was found to have the largest areas under the ROC curve (women=0.755, 95% CI 0.748-0.763) relative to at least one risk factor (ie hypertension or diabetes or dyslipidemia). The optimal cut-off values for overweight or obesity from our study in men and women showed that BMIs of 23.6 and 22.1 kg/m(2), WCs of 80.5 and 71.5 cm, waist-to-hip ratios (WHpR) of 0.85 and 0.76, and WHtR of 0.48 and 0.45, respectively, may be more appropriate in Taiwan. WHtR may be a better indicator for screening overweight- or obesity-related CVD risk factors than the other three indexes (BMI, WC and WHpR) in Taiwan. Our study also supported the hypothesis that the cut-off values using BMI and WC to define obesity should be much lower in Taiwan than in Western countries.International Journal of Obesity 10/2002; 26(9):1232-8. · 5.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Conventional risk factors of cardiovascular disease and mortality in the general population such as body mass, serum cholesterol, and blood pressure are also found to relate to outcome in maintenance dialysis patients, but often in an opposite direction. Obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension appear to be protective features that are associated with a greater survival among dialysis patients. A similar protective role has been described for high serum creatinine and possibly homocysteine levels in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. These findings are in contrast to the well-known association between over-nutrition and poor outcome in the general population. The association between under-nutrition and adverse cardiovascular outcome in dialysis patients, which stands in contrast to that seen in non-ESRD individuals, has been referred to as "reverse epidemiology." Publication bias may have handicapped or delayed additional reports with such paradoxical findings in ESRD patients. The etiology of this inverse association between conventional risk factors and clinical outcome in dialysis patients is not clear. Several possible causes are hypothesized. First, survival bias may play a role since only a small number of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) survive long enough to reach ESRD. Hence, the dialysis patients are probably a distinctively selected population out of CKD patients and may not represent the risk factor constellations of their CKD predecessors. Second, the time discrepancy between competitive risk factors may play a role. For example, the survival disadvantages of under-nutrition, which is frequently present in dialysis patients, may have a major impact on mortality in a shorter period of time, and this overwhelms the long-term negative effects of over-nutrition on survival. Third, the presence of the "malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome" (MICS) in dialysis patients may also explain the existence of reverse epidemiology in dialysis patients. Both protein-energy malnutrition and inflammation or the combination of the two are much more common in dialysis patients than in the general population and many elements of MICS, such as low weight-for-height, hypocholesterolemia, or hypocreatininemia, are known risk factors of poor outcome in dialysis patients. The existence of reverse epidemiology may have a bearing on the management of dialysis patients. It is possible that new standards or goals for such traditional risk factors as body mass, serum cholesterol, and blood pressure should be considered for these individuals.Kidney International 04/2003; 63(3):793-808. · 7.92 Impact Factor