Production and evaluation of reagents for detection of Histoplasma capsulatum antigenuria by enzyme immunoassay

Mycotic Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology (Impact Factor: 2.37). 07/2007; 14(6):700-9. DOI: 10.1128/CVI.00083-07
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The detection of urinary Histoplasma capsulatum polysaccharide antigen (HPA) by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) has proven useful for the presumptive diagnosis of histoplasmosis in AIDS patients. Assay limitations include (i) detection of a largely uncharacterized antigen and (ii) difficulty in reproducibly generating antibodies for use in the EIA. To improve antibody production for use in this test and to better understand the antigen being detected, we compared rabbit antibodies elicited using various immunization schedules, routes, and H. capsulatum-derived antigens. Antibodies were evaluated by EIA for their ability to detect purified H. capsulatum C antigen (C-Ag) and antigenuria. Reported as enzyme immunoassay (EI) units (the A(450) with antigen divided by the A(450) without antigen), results demonstrated that intravenous immunization of rabbits with whole, killed yeast-phase cells (yeast-i.v. regimen) produced antibodies giving the highest EI values in the C-Ag EIA (mean EI units +/- standard deviation, 14.9 +/- 0.6 versus 6.4 +/- 0.4 for rabbits immunized with C-Ag versus 2.4 +/- 0.3 for all other regimens combined). Yeast-i.v. antibodies were highly sensitive for the detection of antigenuria in patients with histoplasmosis, as shown by the following results: 12/12 patients compared to 10/12, 6/12, 3/12, and 3/12, respectively, for antibodies from rabbits immunized with (i) C-Ag; (ii) whole, killed yeast-phase cells administered subcutaneously and intramuscularly; (iii) yeast-phase culture filtrates; and (iv) HPA-positive urine. Rabbits immunized using the yeast-i.v. regimen also gave higher peak antibody titers than rabbits immunized by any other regimen (P < 0.03), and their antibodies were most comparable in reactivity to antibodies produced for use in the standard HPA-EIA test (P < 0.001). Therefore, rabbits immunized using the yeast-i.v. regimen produced the most sensitive antibodies with the highest titers for detection of C-Ag and antigenuria in histoplasmosis patients.

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    ABSTRACT: Histoplasma capsulatum is the causative agent of histoplasmosis, a systemic and endemic mycosis widely distributed in the Americas. Diagnosis of histoplasmosis is traditionally accomplished by means of direct preparations and biopsies stained by especial methods, as well as by isolation of fungus in culture; the latter is considered the gold standard. Indirect methods, including immunological tests to detect antibodies and/or antigens, are also valuable; both direct and indirect methods present sensitivity and specificity ranges that vary depending on the clinical form of the disease and the immune status of the host. Recently, molecular biology has allowed implementing new tools to detect and identify H. capsulatum, and several molecular tests, such as nested-PCR, are being used for the diagnosis of histoplasmosis, and so provide high sensitivity and specificity values. In addition, these molecular techniques have made it possible to perform evolution analysis, genetic diversity research, and molecular epidemiology, thus compiling valuable information on the genetic variability of this microorganism.
    12/2010; 14:s145-s158.
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    ABSTRACT: Histoplasma polysaccharide antigen testing is used routinely to diagnose histoplasmosis. At least 3 antigen tests are commercially available. Controversy exists about the relative accuracy of these tests. We report 2 patients with AIDS and culture-confirmed Histoplasma capsulatum meningitis from whom discrepant Histoplasma polysaccharide antigen results were obtained from different laboratories and discuss the potential clinical implications of these results.
    Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease 12/2008; 63(1):111-4. DOI:10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2008.09.008 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mortality associated with invasive aspergillosis (IA) remains high, partly because of delayed diagnosis. Detection of microbial exoantigens, released in serum and other body fluids during infection, may help timely diagnosis. In course of IA, Aspergillus galactomannan (GM), a well established polysaccharide biomarker, is released in body fluids including urine. Urine is an abundant, safely collected specimen, well-suited for point-of-care (POC) testing, which could play an increasing role in screening for early disease. Our main objective was to demonstrate GM antigenuria as a clinically relevant biological phenomenon in IA and establish proof-of-concept that it could be translated to POC diagnosis. Utilizing a novel IgM monoclonal antibody (MAb476) that recognizes GM-like antigens from Aspergillus and other molds, we demonstrated antigenuria in an experimental animal IA model (guinea pig), as well as in human patients. In addition, we investigated the chemical nature of the urinary excreted antigen in human samples, characterized antigen detection in urine by immunoassays, described a putative assay inhibitor in urine, and indicated means of alleviation of the inhibition. We also designed and used a lateral flow immunochromatographic assay to detect urinary excreted antigen in a limited number of IA patient urine samples. In this study, we establish that POC diagnosis of IA based on urinary GM detection is feasible. Prospective studies will be necessary to establish the performance characteristics of an optimized device and define its optimal clinical use.
    PLoS ONE 08/2012; 7(8):e42736. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0042736 · 3.53 Impact Factor


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