Agonists of protease-activated receptors 1 and 2 stimulate electrolyte secretion from mouse gallbladder

Department of Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States
AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology (Impact Factor: 3.8). 07/2007; 293(1):G335-46. DOI: 10.1152/ajpgi.00425.2006
Source: PubMed


Cholecystitis is one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases. Inflammation induces the activation of proteases that can signal to cells by cleaving protease-activated receptors (PARs) to induce hemostasis, inflammation, pain, and repair. However, the distribution of PARs in the gallbladder is unknown, and their effects on gallbladder function have not been fully investigated. We localized immunoreactive PAR(1) and PAR(2) to the epithelium, muscle, and serosa of mouse gallbladder. mRNA transcripts corresponding to PAR(1) and PAR(2), but not PAR(4), were detected by RT-PCR and sequencing. Addition of thrombin and a PAR(1)-selective activating peptide (TFLLRN-NH(2)) to the serosal surface of mouse gallbladder mounted in an Ussing chamber stimulated an increase in short-circuit current in wild-type but not PAR(1) knockout mice. Similarly, serosally applied trypsin and PAR(2) activating peptide (SLIGRL-NH(2)) increased short-circuit current in wild-type but not PAR(2) knockout mice. Proteases and activating peptides strongly inhibited electrogenic responses to subsequent stimulation with the same agonist, indicating homologous desensitization. Removal of HCO(3)(-) ions from the serosal buffer reduced responses to thrombin and trypsin by >80%. Agonists of PAR(1) and PAR(2) increase intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in isolated and cultured gallbladder epithelial cells. The COX-2 inhibitor meloxicam and an inhibitor of CFTR prevented the stimulatory effect of PAR(1) but not PAR(2). Thus PAR(1) and PAR(2) are expressed in the epithelium of the mouse gallbladder, and serosally applied proteases cause a HCO(3)(-) secretion. The effects of PAR(1) but not PAR(2) depend on generation of prostaglandins and activation of CFTR. These mechanisms may markedly influence fluid and electrolyte secretion of the inflamed gallbladder when multiple proteases are generated.

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    • "Experimentally, PARs can also be activated by synthetic peptides [referred to as an agonist peptide (AP)] that mimic the neo-amino terminus of the cleaved receptors. Specific PAR-APs are important tools for investigating the roles of PAR activation7. In a previous study, we observed that TF and PAR2 are highly expressed in the colon cancer cell line SW6208. "
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    ABSTRACT: It has been almost a decade since the molecular cloning of all four members of the proteinase-activated receptor (PAR) family was completed. This unique family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediates specific cellular actions of various endogenous proteinases including thrombin, trypsin, tryptase, etc. and also certain exogenous enzymes. Increasing evidence has been clarifying the emerging roles played by PARs in health and disease. PARs, particularly PAR1 and PAR2, are distributed throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, modulating various GI functions. One of the most important GI functions of PARs is regulation of exocrine secretion in the salivary glands, pancreas and GI mucosal epithelium. PARs also modulate motility of GI smooth muscle, involving multiple mechanisms. PAR2 appears to play dual roles in pancreatitis and related pain, being pro-inflammatory/pro-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory/anti-nociceptive. Similarly, dual roles for PAR1 and PAR2 have been demonstrated in mucosal inflammation/damage throughout the GI tract. There is also fundamental and clinical evidence for involvement of PAR2 in colonic pain. PARs are thus considered key molecules in regulation of GI functions and targets for development of drugs for treatment of various GI diseases. British Journal of Pharmacology (2008) 153, S230–S240; doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0707491; published online 12 November 2007
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