Agonists of protease-activated receptors 1 and 2 stimulate electrolyte secretion from mouse gallbladder
ABSTRACT Cholecystitis is one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases. Inflammation induces the activation of proteases that can signal to cells by cleaving protease-activated receptors (PARs) to induce hemostasis, inflammation, pain, and repair. However, the distribution of PARs in the gallbladder is unknown, and their effects on gallbladder function have not been fully investigated. We localized immunoreactive PAR(1) and PAR(2) to the epithelium, muscle, and serosa of mouse gallbladder. mRNA transcripts corresponding to PAR(1) and PAR(2), but not PAR(4), were detected by RT-PCR and sequencing. Addition of thrombin and a PAR(1)-selective activating peptide (TFLLRN-NH(2)) to the serosal surface of mouse gallbladder mounted in an Ussing chamber stimulated an increase in short-circuit current in wild-type but not PAR(1) knockout mice. Similarly, serosally applied trypsin and PAR(2) activating peptide (SLIGRL-NH(2)) increased short-circuit current in wild-type but not PAR(2) knockout mice. Proteases and activating peptides strongly inhibited electrogenic responses to subsequent stimulation with the same agonist, indicating homologous desensitization. Removal of HCO(3)(-) ions from the serosal buffer reduced responses to thrombin and trypsin by >80%. Agonists of PAR(1) and PAR(2) increase intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in isolated and cultured gallbladder epithelial cells. The COX-2 inhibitor meloxicam and an inhibitor of CFTR prevented the stimulatory effect of PAR(1) but not PAR(2). Thus PAR(1) and PAR(2) are expressed in the epithelium of the mouse gallbladder, and serosally applied proteases cause a HCO(3)(-) secretion. The effects of PAR(1) but not PAR(2) depend on generation of prostaglandins and activation of CFTR. These mechanisms may markedly influence fluid and electrolyte secretion of the inflamed gallbladder when multiple proteases are generated.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the expression of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) in the human pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990, and to evaluate its effect on cell proliferation and invasion. The expression of PAR-2 protein and mRNA in SW1990 cells was determined by immunocytochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. MTT and cell invasion and migration assays, as well as semi-quantitative PCR and zymography analysis, were additionally performed. PAR-2 mRNA was significantly upregulated in the cells treated with trypsin or the PAR-2 activating peptide Ser-Leu-Ile-Gly-Lys-Val (SLIGKV) (P<0.01), but not in the Val-Lys-Gly-Ile-Leu-Ser group (P>0.05). Trypsin and SLIGKV significantly promoted SW1990 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, trypsin and SLIGKV significantly increased the mRNA expression (P<0.01) and gelatinolytic activity (P<0.01) of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2. In conclusion, PAR-2 is expressed in SW1990 cells. PAR-2 activation may promote the invasion and migration of human pancreatic cancer cells by increasing MMP-2 expression.Experimental and therapeutic medicine 01/2015; 9(1):239-244. DOI:10.3892/etm.2014.2052 · 0.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Our previous study has demonstrated that protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) activation mediated by tissue factor (TF)/VIIa complex triggers the ERK1/2/NF-κB signaling pathway, which further contributes to the proliferation and migration of colon cancer cell line SW620. However, the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. This study was to investigate whether protein kinase Cα (PKCα) is involved in these events and the possible mechanism. The results revealed that PAR2-activating peptide or VIIa could induce time-dependent upregulation of PKCα phosphorylation in SW620 cells and PKCα translocation from the cytoplasm to the perinuclear region and nucleus. The activation of PKCα was sufficient to induce ERK1/2 and NF-κB phosphorylation. The VIIa effect was obviously blocked by both anti-TF and anti-PAR2 antibodies. The PKCα inhibitor, safingol, inhibited ERK1/2 phosphorylation and NF-κB activation that is induced by VIIa and abrogated the enhanced proliferation, migration, and survival of SW620 cells by VIIa treatment. Both safingol and PDTC (NF-κB inhibitor) could apparently rescue the effects of VIIa on expression of MMP-9, caspase-3, TF, and Bcl-2/bax in SW620 cells. Collectively, the data in this study suggest that TF/VIIa/PAR2-induced SW620 cell proliferation, migration, and survival are ascribed to the activation of PKCα, and these effects are achieved through PKCα downstream signaling pathways, ERK1/2 and NF-κB.Tumor Biology 12/2012; 34(2). DOI:10.1007/s13277-012-0614-x · 2.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Thrombin activates protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 and induces a myofibroblast phenotype in normal lung fibroblasts. The origins of myofibroblasts are resident fibroblasts, fibrocytes, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We investigated the effects of thrombin, an important mediator of interstitial lung fibrosis, on EMT in A549 human alveolar epithelial cells. We show that thrombin induced EMT and collagen I secretion through the activation of PAR-1, and PKC and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in A549 cells. These effects were largely prevented by a specific PAR-1 antagonist, short interfering RNA (siRNA) directed against PAR-1, or specific PKCα/β, δ, and ε inhibitors. These data indicated that interaction with thrombin and alveolar epithelial cells might directly contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis through EMT. Targeting PAR-1 on the pulmonary epithelium or specific inhibitors to PKCα/β, δ, and ε might stop the fibrotic processes in human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis by preventing thrombin-induced EMT.Experimental Lung Research 08/2013; DOI:10.3109/01902148.2013.820809 · 1.75 Impact Factor