Heavy metal contamination in western Xiamen Bay sediments and its vicinity, China. Mar Pollut Bull

State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Environmental Science Research Center, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005, PR China.
Marine Pollution Bulletin (Impact Factor: 2.99). 08/2007; 54(7):974-82. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2007.02.010
Source: PubMed


Concentrations of selected heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni and Fe) in surface sediments from nine sites in western Xiamen Bay and its vicinity were studied in order to understand current metal contamination due to urbanization and economic development in Xiamen, China. The sediment samples were collected in December 2004 and July 2005 respectively in order to examine temporal variations. In this study, we found that heavy metal concentrations in surface sediments sampled in the western Xiamen Bay and adjacent Maluan Bay and Yuandang Lagoon varied from 19 to 97mg kg(-1) for Cu, 45 to 60mg kg(-1) for Pb, 65 to 223mg kg(-1) for Zn, 0.11 to 1.01mg kg(-1) for Cd, 37 to 134mg kg(-1) for Cr, 25 to 65mg kg(-1) for Ni and 3.08 to 4.81% for Fe. Although all metal concentrations in sediments meets Chinese National Standard Criteria for Marine Sediment Quality, both metal enrichment factors (EF) and geoaccumulation index (I(geo)) show that Pb contamination exists in the entire study area and contamination of other metals are also present in some locations depending on the sources, of which sewage outlets and commercial ports are the main sources of contaminants to the area. This study shows that using the sediment quality standard criteria only to assess sediments cannot properly reflect sediment contamination. A multiple approaches should be applied for the sediment quality assessment.

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Available from: Luoping Zhang, Apr 21, 2015
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    • "Enrichment factor is a useful index to differentiate between anthropogenic influences and those from natural processes. The EF of all elements can be calculated using the following equation (Buat-Menard and Chesselet 1979; Zhang et al. 2007 "
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    ABSTRACT: Sediment samples were collected from the Petrochemical Special Economic Zone of Mahshahr Bay, Persian Gulf, and analyzed for possible trace metal contamination by means of a chemical partitioning method. The heavy metal contents in the sediments follow the order of Al > Sr > Mn > Zn > Ni > Ba > Cr > Cu > As > Co. The degree of sediment contamination was evaluated using Pollution load index (PLI), modified degree of contamination (mCd) and geo-accumulation index (Igeo), enrichment factor (EF). All these indices, compare present concentrations of metals to their background levels in crust and shale. In a specific area with high geological background like Mahshahr Bay, such a comparison may lead to erroneous conclusions. Due to remarkable contribution of lithogenous fraction, as the natural component, to the bulk concentration of trace metals in the sediments of such an area, assessment of chemical hazard to the surrounding aquatic environment should not be carried out through the traditional approaches. In the present study, anthropogenic portion of the metals was determined through one-step chemical sequential extraction and lithogenous portion substituted for the mean crust and shale levels in the new pollution index (RIAquatic). PLI, mCd and Igeo revealed overall low values, but EF, pollution index (IPOLL) and newly developed pollution index were relatively high for all samples.
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 09/2015; 187(10). DOI:10.1007/s10661-015-4833-7 · 1.68 Impact Factor
    • "In order to determine metal enrichment in the sediments , two different methods were adopted. One was the enrichment factor (EF), which is used to determine the anthropogenic contribution in heavy metal concentrations (Zhang et al. 2007). This value is obtained from the ratio between the measured concentration of metal/ Al and that in background values within the lake sediments. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the vertical distribution of heavy metals in core sediments taken from Lake Çıldır, Turkey, and their potential ecological risks together with organic carbon content and chlorophyll degradation products. Samples were collected from six sampling stations determined along two main transections aligned in north-south and east-west directions. The enrichment (EF) and contamination factor (CF), potential ecological risk (PER) index, and pollution load index (PLI) were calculated from the obtained results. For the elements Pb, As, and Cd, a moderate level of contamination was detected, whereas a moderate-to-high concentration level was obtained for Mn. The highest contamination level was found for Hg. A pollutant accumulation exists particularly in the surface sediments. Cd and Hg are the only two metals considered to be a potential risk factor in the lake.
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    • "PAHs normally reach the marine environment as a result of fossil fuel combustion, waste incineration and oil spills, posing a threat to benthic organisms due to their acutely toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic properties (Law and Biscaya, 1994; Connell et al., 1997; Kannan et al., 2005). Metals are also released into the marine environment, as a result of both natural and anthropogenic inputs and are also strongly affiliated with particulate matter (Zhang et al., 2007). Sediment bound contamination has been shown to affect the water quality and resulting impacts have been documented in a range of marine invertebrate and vertebrate species (Besselink et al., 1997; Leung et al., 2005; Damiano et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: The environmental risks of 22 contaminants, comprising 6 metals, 10 PAHs and 6 PCB congeners occurring in UK estuaries and coastal waters were assessed as single substances. Sediment samples were taken within 12 nautical miles of the English and Welsh coastlines between 1999 and 2011. The measured environmental concentrations were compared to quality standards including ERL, ERM and EAC, all of which have been established internationally. Out of a total of 38,031 individual samples analysed, 42.6% and 7.7% exceeded the ERL/EAC and ERM values, respectively. The highest Risk Characterisation Ratios (RCRs) for metals, PAHs and PCBs were observed for copper, fluorene and CB118 (2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl). In general, the highest concentrations of PAHs and PCBs were observed in 2011 in the Lower Medway indicating a potential risk to the aquatic environment. This study suggests that re-suspension of contaminants banned over 20years ago is still an ongoing issue. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
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