Heavy metal contamination in western Xiamen Bay sediments and its vicinity, China. Mar Pollut Bull

State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Environmental Science Research Center, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005, PR China.
Marine Pollution Bulletin (Impact Factor: 2.99). 08/2007; 54(7):974-82. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2007.02.010
Source: PubMed


Concentrations of selected heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni and Fe) in surface sediments from nine sites in western Xiamen Bay and its vicinity were studied in order to understand current metal contamination due to urbanization and economic development in Xiamen, China. The sediment samples were collected in December 2004 and July 2005 respectively in order to examine temporal variations. In this study, we found that heavy metal concentrations in surface sediments sampled in the western Xiamen Bay and adjacent Maluan Bay and Yuandang Lagoon varied from 19 to 97mg kg(-1) for Cu, 45 to 60mg kg(-1) for Pb, 65 to 223mg kg(-1) for Zn, 0.11 to 1.01mg kg(-1) for Cd, 37 to 134mg kg(-1) for Cr, 25 to 65mg kg(-1) for Ni and 3.08 to 4.81% for Fe. Although all metal concentrations in sediments meets Chinese National Standard Criteria for Marine Sediment Quality, both metal enrichment factors (EF) and geoaccumulation index (I(geo)) show that Pb contamination exists in the entire study area and contamination of other metals are also present in some locations depending on the sources, of which sewage outlets and commercial ports are the main sources of contaminants to the area. This study shows that using the sediment quality standard criteria only to assess sediments cannot properly reflect sediment contamination. A multiple approaches should be applied for the sediment quality assessment.

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Available from: Luoping Zhang, Apr 21, 2015
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    • "Al and Fe are the most abundant elements on the earth. In this study, Al was used as normalizing element to calculate the enrichment factor (Loring and Rantala, 1992; Loska et al., 1997; Shotyk et al., 2000; Jain, et al., 2005; Zhang et al., 2007; Duman et al., 2012 "
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we collected sediment samples from three transects along Andong tidal flat, Hangzhou Bay, and studied the concentrations and sources of heavy metals. Enrichment factors (EF), contamination factors (CF), and geoaccumulation indexes (I geo) showed that transect A was a polluted area while transect B and C were relatively unpolluted. The elevated heavy metal concentrations along transect A may be attributed to the human pollutions along the tidal creeks and passageway. Principal component analyses indicated that Cr, Ni, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Cu were originated from the same sources, and most of the heavy metals presented elevated concentrations near shore, suggesting the near shore pollution by anthropogenic activities. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of sediment samples were similar to that of Upper Continental Crust, Yangtze River, and East China Sea with enrichment of LREEs, fairly flat patterns of HREEs, and significantly negative Eu anomaly and positive Ce anomaly. It is suggested that the main sources of sediments were terrigenous materials but also influenced by the sediments from East China Sea. This work provided essential information on the pollution status of sediments in the Hangzhou Bay and assessed the possible sources of heavy metals, which will be useful for the environmental protection of Hangzhou Bay.
    Continental Shelf Research 11/2015; 110:72-84. DOI:10.1016/j.csr.2015.10.002 · 1.89 Impact Factor
    • "normalizer to compensate for the differences in sediments grain size and mineralogy ( Covelli and Fontolan 1997 ; Zhang et al . 2007 ) . The ranges of EF obtained for the metals were as follows : Cd ( 0 . 8À41 ) , Co ( 0 . 1À0 . 7 ) , Cr ( 0 . 1À0 . 9 ) , Cu ( 0 . 1À0 . 9 ) , Mn ( 0 . 5À1 . 9 ) , Ni ( 0 . 2À0 . 9 ) , Pb ( 0 . 6À4 . 3 ) and Zn ( 0 . 1À9 . 3 ) . Applying the interpretation of Birch ( 2003 ) , Co , Cr , Cu , Mn and Ni exhibited no enrichment , although "
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    ABSTRACT: The spatial and temporal variations of some trace metals in the surface sediments of Cochin Estuary were analyzed along with their geochemical associations to identify the possible sources, bioavailability and the health risks posed by them. The dominance of kaolinite and suggested that clay minerals distribution is influenced by sediment sorting. Total metal analysis revealed enrichment for Cd, Pb and Zn due to anthropogenic activities. The speciation analysis established that notwithstanding the large availability, carbonate as well as organic and sulfides bound fractions showed negligible associations with most of the metals. Hydrous Fe�Mn oxides appeared to play a major role in controlling the fate and transport of these metals in the sediments of Cochin Estuary. Lower contribution of the residual fractions for Cd (21%�26%), Pb (<60%) and Zn (24%�42%) indicated an obvious increase of other geochemical fractions. Risk assessment analysis revealed that regardless of total concentration, none of the analyzed metals were at safe levels in the estuary as appreciable percentages were found to be associated with mobile geochemical forms. The speciation study conspicuously established that the metals originating from nongeogenic sources are largely associated with the labile fractions and hence are more detrimental to the aquatic biota.
    Toxicological and environmental chemistry 10/2015; DOI:10.1080/02772248.2015.1101108 · 0.83 Impact Factor
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    • "Enrichment factor is a useful index to differentiate between anthropogenic influences and those from natural processes. The EF of all elements can be calculated using the following equation (Buat-Menard and Chesselet 1979; Zhang et al. 2007 "
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    ABSTRACT: Sediment samples were collected from the Petrochemical Special Economic Zone of Mahshahr Bay, Persian Gulf, and analyzed for possible trace metal contamination by means of a chemical partitioning method. The heavy metal contents in the sediments follow the order of Al > Sr > Mn > Zn > Ni > Ba > Cr > Cu > As > Co. The degree of sediment contamination was evaluated using Pollution load index (PLI), modified degree of contamination (mCd) and geo-accumulation index (Igeo), enrichment factor (EF). All these indices, compare present concentrations of metals to their background levels in crust and shale. In a specific area with high geological background like Mahshahr Bay, such a comparison may lead to erroneous conclusions. Due to remarkable contribution of lithogenous fraction, as the natural component, to the bulk concentration of trace metals in the sediments of such an area, assessment of chemical hazard to the surrounding aquatic environment should not be carried out through the traditional approaches. In the present study, anthropogenic portion of the metals was determined through one-step chemical sequential extraction and lithogenous portion substituted for the mean crust and shale levels in the new pollution index (RIAquatic). PLI, mCd and Igeo revealed overall low values, but EF, pollution index (IPOLL) and newly developed pollution index were relatively high for all samples.
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 09/2015; 187(10). DOI:10.1007/s10661-015-4833-7 · 1.68 Impact Factor
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