Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor drives monocytes to CD14low CD83+ DCSIGN- interleukin-10-producing myeloid cells with differential effects on T-cell subsets.
ABSTRACT Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has long been found to have growth-promoting effects on multipotent haematopoietic lineages, specifically granulocytes and macrophages. GM-CSF combined with interleukin-4 (IL-4) drives monocytes to become myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) in vitro. We report that culturing human monocytes with GM-CSF alone generates myeloid cells (GM-Mono) that have lower expression of CD14 than monocytes and that fail to express DC-SIGN. GM-Monos, however, express CD83 and the transcription factor PU.1, although at a lower level than the conventional mDCs generated in the presence of GM-CSF and IL-4. On stimulation with tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma and anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody, the GM-Monos predominantly produced IL-10 but were less efficient in IL-12 production. In a primary allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction, GM-Monos induced hyporesponsiveness and IL-10-biased cytokine production in CD4(+) T cells. In fresh mixed lymphocyte reaction, GM-Monos inhibited conventional mDC-induced allogeneic CD4(+) T-cell proliferation. GM-Mono-induced inhibition of allogeneic CD4(+) T-cell proliferation was partially attributed to IL-10. Interestingly, GM-Monos neither induced hyporesponsiveness in allogeneic CD8(+) T cells nor inhibited conventional mDC-induced allogeneic CD8(+) T-cell proliferation. Taken together, we characterize monocyte-derived CD14(low) CD83(+) cells generated by GM-CSF that can induce tolerance or stimulation of T cells depending on T-cell subsets.
SourceAvailable from: Oscar Ramirez[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells are increased in the peripheral blood of advanced-stage cancer patients; however, no studies have shown a correlation of these immunosuppressive cells with clinical outcomes in melanoma patients. We characterized the frequency and suppressive function of multiple subsets of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in the peripheral blood of 34 patients with Stage IV melanoma, 20 patients with Stage I melanoma, and 15 healthy donors. The frequency of CD14(+) MDSCs (Lin(-) CD11b(+) HLA-DR(-) CD14(+) CD33(+)) and CD14(-) MDSCs (Lin(-) CD11b(+) HLA-DR(-) CD14(-) CD33(+)) was increased in the peripheral blood of Stage IV melanoma patients relative to healthy donors. The frequency of CD14(+) and CD14(-) MDSCs correlated with each other and with the increased frequency of regulatory T cells, but not with classically defined monocytes. CD14(-) MDSCs isolated from the peripheral blood of Stage IV melanoma patients suppressed T cell activation more than those isolated from healthy donors, and the frequency of these cells correlated with disease progression and decreased overall survival. Our study provides the first evidence that the frequency of CD14(-) MDSCs negatively correlates with clinical outcomes in advanced-stage melanoma patients. These data indicate that suppressive MDSCs should be considered as targets for future immunotherapies.Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 09/2013; DOI:10.1007/s00262-013-1475-x · 3.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human and murine studies showed that GM-CSF exerts beneficial effects in intestinal inflammation. To explore whether GM-CSF mediates its effects via monocytes, we analyzed effects of GM-CSF on monocytes in vitro and assessed the immunomodulatory potential of GM-CSF-activated monocytes (GMaMs) in vivo. We used microarray technology and functional assays to characterize GMaMs in vitro and used a mouse model of colitis to study GMaM functions in vivo. GM-CSF activates monocytes to increase adherence, migration, chemotaxis, and oxidative burst in vitro, and primes monocyte response to secondary microbial stimuli. In addition, GMaMs accelerate epithelial healing in vitro. Most important, in a mouse model of experimental T cell-induced colitis, GMaMs show therapeutic activity and protect mice from colitis. This is accompanied by increased production of IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13, and decreased production of IFN-gamma in lamina propria mononuclear cells in vivo. Confirming this finding, GMaMs attract T cells and shape their differentiation toward Th2 by upregulating IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 in T cells in vitro. Beneficial effects of GM-CSF in Crohn's disease may possibly be mediated through reprogramming of monocytes to simultaneously improved bacterial clearance and induction of wound healing, as well as regulation of adaptive immunity to limit excessive inflammation.
Article: Wall slip of molten polymers[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Progress in Polymer Science j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / p p o l y s c i a b s t r a c t There is considerable experimental evidence that the classical no-slip boundary condition of fluid mechanics is not always a valid assumption for the flow of high molecular weight molten polymers. In fact, molten polymers slip macroscopically at solid surfaces when the wall shear stress exceeds a critical value. Moreover, for linear polymers there exists a second critical wall shear stress value at which a transition from a weak to a strong slip occurs. These two modes of slip (weak and strong) are due to flow-induced chain detachment/desorption at the polymer/wall interface and to chain disentanglement of the polymer chains in the bulk from a monolayer of polymer chains adsorbed at the interface. In this review, the two phys-ical mechanisms of slip are discussed and validated on the basis of published experimental data. The slip velocity of molten polymers is a complex function and has been reported to depend on wall shear and normal stresses, temperature, and molecular characteristics of polymers (molecular weight and its distribution). Proposed slip models, static and dynamic, are also reviewed and their significance on the rheology and flow simulations of molten polymers is discussed.Progress in Polymer Science 04/2012; 37:624-643. DOI:10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2011.09.004 · 26.85 Impact Factor