Effect of estrogen and inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase on Akt and FOXO1 in rat uterus
ABSTRACT The importance of FOXO transcription factors in regulating different aspects of cellular homeostasis and apoptosis has become apparent. Akt/protein kinase B has been shown to phosphorylate and inactivate members of FOXO family of transcription factors. Akt and its upstream regulator, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) are involved in rapid action of estrogen (E2) in different cells and tissues. The aim of the present study was to analyze the E2/PI3K/Akt/FOXO pathway in rat uterus. In response to E2, phosphorylation of Akt/PKB on Ser473 and FOXO1 on Ser256 and Thr24 residues increased but with distinct kinetics, regulating the activation and inactivation of Akt and FOXO1 proteins, respectively. The antiestrogen ICI 182,780 prevented E2 induced Akt activation suggesting that estrogen receptors mediate this effect of E2. Intrauterine injection of Wortmannin caused a decrease in the phosphorylation of Ser473 of Akt, and attenuated phosphorylation of its downstream target FOXO1 at Ser256 and at Thr24. However, the effect of E2 on phosphorylation of Thr24 showed a kinetic pattern distinct from that of Ser256. Our results suggest that the E2/PI3K/Akt/FOXO1 pathway in rat uterus is functioning even at the lack of ovarian hormones and responses to E2 treatment. Estradiol increases Akt phosphorylation through a Wortmannin sensitive way, presumably involving PI3K. The present work shows that PI3K plays a crucial role in the phosphorylation and inactivation of FOXO1 in vivo, indicating that the regulation of this transcription factor is a more complex event in uterine cells requiring further investigations.
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ABSTRACT: Murine models of starvation-induced muscle atrophy demonstrate that reduced protein kinase B (AKT) function upregulates the atrophy-related gene atrogin-1/MAFbx (atrogin). The mechanism involves release of inhibition of Forkhead transcription factors, namely Foxo1 and Foxo3. Elevated atrogin mRNA also corresponds with elevated TNF in inflammatory catabolic states, including cancer and chronic heart failure. Exogenous tumor necrosis factor (TNF) increases atrogin mRNA in vivo and in vitro. We used TNF-treated C2C12 myotubes to test the hypothesis that AKT-Foxo1/3 signaling mediates TNF regulation of atrogin mRNA. Here we confirm that exposure to TNF increases atrogin mRNA (+125%). We also confirm that canonical AKT-mediated regulation of atrogin is active in C2C12 myotubes. Inhibition of phosphoinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling with wortmannin reduces AKT phosphorylation (-87%) and increases atrogin mRNA (+340%). Activation with insulin-like growth factor (IGF) increases AKT phosphorylation (+126%) and reduces atrogin mRNA (-15%). Although AKT regulation is intact, our data suggest it does not mediate TNF effects on atrogin. TNF increases AKT phosphorylation (+50%) and stimulation of AKT with IGF does not prevent TNF induction of atrogin mRNA. Nor does TNF appear to signal through Foxo1/3 proteins. TNF has no effect on Foxo1/3 mRNA or Foxo1/3 nuclear localization. Instead, TNF increases nuclear Foxo4 protein (+55%). Small interfering RNA oligos targeted to two distinct regions of Foxo4 mRNA reduce the TNF-induced increase in atrogin mRNA (-34% and -32%). We conclude that TNF increases atrogin mRNA independent of AKT via Foxo4. These results suggest a mechanism by which inflammatory catabolic states may persist in the presence of adequate growth factors and nutrition.AJP Cell Physiology 09/2008; 295(4):C986-93. DOI:10.1152/ajpcell.00041.2008 · 3.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Progesterone is a key hormone in the regulation of uterine function. In the normal physiological context, progesterone is primarily involved in remodeling of the endometrium and maintaining a quiescent myometrium. When pathologies of the uterus develop, specifically, endometrial cancer and uterine leiomyoma, response to progesterone is usually altered. Progesterone acts through mainly two isoforms of the progesterone receptor (PR), PRA and PRB which have been reported to exhibit different transcriptional activities. Studies examining the expression and function of the PRs in the normal endometrium and myometrium as well as in endometrial cancer and uterine leiomyoma are summarized here. The clinical use of progestins and the transcriptional activity of the PR on genes specific to endometrial cancer and leiomyoma are described. An increased understanding of the differential expression of PRs and response to progesterone in these two diseases is critical in order to develop more efficient and targeted therapies.Progress in molecular biology and translational science 01/2009; 87:53-85. DOI:10.1016/S1877-1173(09)87002-6 · 3.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Progesterone has been associated with promoting growth of uterine leiomyomas. The mechanisms involved remain unclear. In this study we investigated the activation of the AKT pathway and its downstream effectors, glycogen synthase kinase-3b and Forkhead box O (FOXO)-1 by progesterone as a mechanism of proliferation and survival of leiomyoma cells. Inhibitors of the AKT pathway were used to demonstrate the role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, AKT, and FOXO1 in contributing to cell proliferation and apoptosis. Treatment of leiomyoma cells with R5020 over a period of 72 h resulted in higher cell numbers compared with untreated cells. When cells were treated with 100 nm R5020 for 1 and 24 h, the levels of phospho(Ser 473)-AKT increased. This increase was inhibited when cells were cotreated with RU486. Treatment of leiomyoma cells with a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, LY294 dramatically decreased levels of phospho(Ser 473)-AKT, despite R5020 treatment. In addition to increased phospho(Ser 473)-AKT levels, R5020 treatment resulted in an increase in phospho(Ser 256)-FOXO1 and phosphoglycogen synthase kinase-3b. Inhibition of AKT using API-59 decreased proliferation and cell viability even in the presence of R5020. Higher concentrations of API-59-induced apoptosis of leiomyoma cells, even in the presence of R5020. Psammaplysene A increased nuclear FOXO1 levels and did not affect cell proliferation but induced apoptosis of leiomyoma cells. The progestin, R5020, can rapidly activate the AKT pathway. Inhibition of the AKT pathway inhibits cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis of leiomyoma cells.The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 03/2009; 94(5):1768-74. DOI:10.1210/jc.2008-2093 · 6.31 Impact Factor