Gradations of awareness in a modified sequence learning task.
ABSTRACT We argue performance in the serial reaction time (SRT) task is associated with gradations of awareness that provide examples of fringe consciousness [Mangan, B. (1993b). Taking phenomenology seriously: the "fringe" and its implications for cognitive research. Consciousness and Cognition, 2, 89-108, Mangan, B. (2003). The conscious "fringe": Bringing William James up to date. In B. J. Baars, W. P. Banks & J. B. Newman (Eds.), Essential sources in the scientific study of consciousness (pp. 741-759). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.], and address limitations of the traditional SRT procedure, including criticism of exclusion generation tasks. Two experiments are conducted with a modified SRT procedure where irrelevant stimulus attributes obscure the sequence rule. Our modified paradigm, which includes a novel exclusion task, makes it easier to demonstrate a previously controversial influence of response stimulus interval (RSI) on awareness. It also allows identification of participants showing fringe consciousness rather than explicit sequence knowledge, as reflected by dissociations between different awareness measures. The NEO-PI-R variable Openness to Feelings influenced the diversity of subjective feelings reported during two awareness measures, but not the degree of learning and awareness as previously found with traditional SRT tasks [Norman, E., Price, M. C., & Duff, S. C. (2006). Fringe consciousness in sequence learning: the influence of individual differences. Consciousness and Cognition, 15(4), 723-760.]. This suggests possible distinctions between two components of fringe consciousness.
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ABSTRACT: This paper begins by considering problems that have plagued investigations of automatic or unconscious influences of perception and memory. A process dissociation procedure that provides an escape from those problems is introduced. The process dissociation procedure separates the contributions of different types of processes to performance of a task, rather than equating processes with tasks. Using that procedure, I provide new evidence in favor of a two-factor theory of recognition memory; one factor relies on automatic processes and the other relies on intentional processes. Recollection (an intentional use of memory) is hampered when attention is divided, rather than full, at the time of test. In contrast, the use of familiarity as a basis for recognition memory judgments (an automatic use of memory) is shown to be invariant across full versus divided attention, manipulated at test. Process dissociation procedures provide a general framework for separating automatic from intentional forms of processing in a variety of domains; including perception, memory, and thought.Journal of Memory and Language. 10/1991;
- Consciousness and Cognition - CONSCIOUS COGN. 01/1993; 2(2):142-154.
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ABSTRACT: Investigated the unconfounding of learning of simple frequency information from complex structure during sequenced serial reaction time (RT) trials. Experiment 1 demonstrated that disruptions in RTs that occur when Ss are transferred to random trials (e.g., A. Cohen et al; see record 1990-08941-001) may result from a change in simple frequency information. The implication is that negative transfer effects cannot be attributed to the learning of complex information if simpler information is also allowed to vary between training and transfer trials. Exp 2 used a procedure in which simple frequency information remained constant between training and transfer trials, which provided evidence of complex sequence structure learning while subjects were engaged in a secondary tone-counting task. Results from cued-generation and recognition tests indicated that the learning was implicit. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)Journal of Experimental Psychology Learning Memory and Cognition 04/1994; 20(3):585-594. · 2.92 Impact Factor