Psychometric properties of the Peer Interactions in Primary School (PIPS) Questionnaire.
ABSTRACT Recently, national and international scientific and popular press has focused on bullying and victimization. Unfortunately, many interventions that address bullying and victimization are yet to be empirically validated. One problem is the lack of a psychometrically sound instrument for the measurement of bullying and victimization.
To alleviate this shortcoming, the Peer Interactions in Primary School Questionnaire (PIPS) was developed and tested. Twenty-two questions designed to capture direct and indirect forms of bullying and victimization were created at a third-grade reading level. Psychometric data were collected from administration of the questionnaire to 270 students in third through sixth grades at three different elementary schools. An exploratory factor analysis yielded two factors (bullying and victimization).
Internal consistency for the questionnaire was high (Cronbach's alpha = .90). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Spearman's rho established that test-retest reliability was high for both scales: bullying (ICC = .84; rho = .76) and victimization (ICC = .88; rho = .87). Significant Kruskal-Wallis tests of relationships between PIPS scales and items on the Olweus Bullying/Victimization Questionnaire and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire supported concurrent validity. Bullying and victimization were widespread, as 89.5% of children experienced some form of victimization and 59.0% of students participated in some form of bullying.
With these data, the PIPS is the first self-report bullying and victimization measure designed for elementary school use determined reliable (internally consistent and reproducible) and valid. The PIPS is a tool that could be used in the design and evaluation of school-based bullying/victimization interventions.
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ABSTRACT: Bullying is a significant problem in schools and measuring this concept remains problematic. The purposes of this study were to (1) identify the published self-report measures developed to assess youth bullying; (2) evaluate their psychometric properties and instrument characteristics; and (3) evaluate the quality of identified psychometric papers evaluating youth bullying measures.Journal of School Health 12/2014; 84(12):819-43. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The authors generated exact probability distributions for sample sizes up to 35 in each of three groups (n ≤ 105) and up to 10 in each of four groups (n ≤ 40). They compared the exact distributions to the chi-square, gamma, and beta approximations. The beta approximation was best in terms of the root mean square error. At specific significance levels, either the gamma or beta approximation was best. These results suggest that the most common approximation, the chi-square approximation, is not a good choice. The authors demonstrate this point using an applied example. Critical value tables for the exact distribution are available online at http://faculty.virginia.edu/kruskal-wallis. The portion of these tables that provides critical values for equal sample sizes appears in this article. The authors recommend that researchers use critical values from the exact distribution whenever possible. If sample sizes exceed those included in the authors’ exact probability tables, they recommend using the beta approximation instead of the chi-square and gamma approximations.The Journal of Experimental Education 01/2013; 81(2):139-156. · 1.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Agitation is a vexing problem frequently observed in emergency department acute psychiatric patients, yet no instruments to measure agitation in this setting and population were found upon review of the literature. Previously developed agitation rating scales are limited by the length of observation they require, their need for participation by the patient, complexity in scoring, and a lack of validity in this setting and population. The purpose of this study was to psychometrically evaluate and refine an observation-based agitation scale for use with emergency department acute psychiatric patients. Using a methodological design, the 21-item Agitation Severity Scale was utilized to assess 270 adult psychiatric patients in the emergency setting in a prospective, observational fashion. Reliability analysis, item analysis, exploratory factor analysis, and validity assessments were completed. The relationship between Agitation Severity Scale scores and scores on the previously established Overt Agitation Severity Scale was evaluated. The instrument was reduced to 17 items representing four factors (Aggressive Behaviors, Interpersonal Behaviors, Involuntary Motor Behaviors, and Physical Stance) that accounted for nearly 70% of observed variance, Cronbach's α = 0.91. Evidence of internal consistency reliability, equivalence reliability, construct validity, and convergent validity was established. Through this study, the 17-item Agitation Severity Scale demonstrated acceptable levels of reliability and validity when used with acute psychiatric patients in the emergency setting. This instrument holds promise as a method of enhancing clinical communication about agitation, evaluating the efficacy of interventions aimed at decreasing agitation, and as a research tool.Advanced emergency nursing journal 07/2014; 36(3):250-70.