Recently, national and international scientific and popular press has focused on bullying and victimization. Unfortunately, many interventions that address bullying and victimization are yet to be empirically validated. One problem is the lack of a psychometrically sound instrument for the measurement of bullying and victimization.
To alleviate this shortcoming, the Peer Interactions in Primary School Questionnaire (PIPS) was developed and tested. Twenty-two questions designed to capture direct and indirect forms of bullying and victimization were created at a third-grade reading level. Psychometric data were collected from administration of the questionnaire to 270 students in third through sixth grades at three different elementary schools. An exploratory factor analysis yielded two factors (bullying and victimization).
Internal consistency for the questionnaire was high (Cronbach's alpha = .90). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Spearman's rho established that test-retest reliability was high for both scales: bullying (ICC = .84; rho = .76) and victimization (ICC = .88; rho = .87). Significant Kruskal-Wallis tests of relationships between PIPS scales and items on the Olweus Bullying/Victimization Questionnaire and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire supported concurrent validity. Bullying and victimization were widespread, as 89.5% of children experienced some form of victimization and 59.0% of students participated in some form of bullying.
With these data, the PIPS is the first self-report bullying and victimization measure designed for elementary school use determined reliable (internally consistent and reproducible) and valid. The PIPS is a tool that could be used in the design and evaluation of school-based bullying/victimization interventions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Peer Interaction in Primary School Questionnaire (PIPSQ) was developed to assess individuals’ levels of bullying and victimization.
This study used the approach of latent means analysis (LMA) within the framework of structural equation modeling (SEM) to
explore the factor structure and gender differences associated with the PIPSQ in a sample of Egyptian (N=361), Saudi Arabian (N=350) and USA (270) children. Results of the confirmatory factor analysis are consistent with previous work and support
the cross-cultural validity of the PIPSQ factor structure. The PIPSQ factor loadings were invariant across Egyptian and Saudi
samples, whereas only partial invariance was met between Egyptian or Saudi samples and the USA sample. Full measurement invariance
was met between gender within the three cultures, that is the PIPSQ was useful to compare bullying and victims between gender
within the three cultures, but it is only valid to compare those two constructs between Egyptian and Saudi boys and girls.
The results indicated that Egyptian and Saudi boys/girls had a higher level of bullying than American boys/girls, whereas
no differences were displayed among the three cultures on the victimization subscale. Boys had a higher level of bullying
than girls in the three cultures, and boys and girls had a similar level of victimization in three cultures.
KeywordsThe Peer Interaction in Primary School Questionnaire-Measurement invariance-Measurement equivalence-Confirmatory factor analysis-Bullying-Victimization-Gender-Egypt-Saudi Arabia-USA
Social Psychology of Education 03/2009; 13(1):57-76. DOI:10.1007/s11218-009-9098-y
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