Characterization of the P373L E-cadherin germline missense mutation and implication for clinical management.
ABSTRACT Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is a cancer susceptibility syndrome caused by E-cadherin germline mutations. One-third of these mutations are of the missense type, representing a burden in genetic counselling. A new germline missense mutation (P373L) was recently identified in a HDGC Italian family. The present work aimed at addressing the disease-causative nature of the P373L mutant.
Assessment of the P373L mutation effect was based on cell aggregation and invasion assays. LOH analysis at the E-cadherin locus, search for somatic E-cadherin mutations and for promoter hypermethylation were performed to identify the mechanism of inactivation of the E-cadherin wild-type allele in the tumour.
In vitro the P373L germline mutation impaired the E-cadherin functions. E-cadherin promoter hypermethylation was observed in the tumour of the P373L mutation carrier.
We conclude that the combination of clinical, in vitro and molecular genetic data is helpful for establishing an accurate analysis of HDGC-associated CDH1 germline missense mutations and subsequently for appropriate clinical management of asymptomatic mutation carriers.
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ABSTRACT: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) involving down-regulation of E-cadherin is thought to play a fundamental role during early steps of invasion and metastasis of carcinoma cells. The aim of our study was to elucidate the role of EMT regulators Snail, SIP1 (both are direct repressors of E-cadherin), and Twist (an activator of N-cadherin during Drosophila embryogenesis), in primary human gastric cancers. Expression of Snail, SIP1, and Twist was analyzed in 48 gastric carcinomas by real-time quantitative RT-PCR in paraffin-embedded and formalin-fixed tissues. The changes of expression levels of these genes in malignant tissues compared to matched non-tumorous tissues were correlated with the expression of E- and N-cadherin. From 28 diffuse-type gastric carcinomas analyzed reduced E-cadherin expression was detected in 11 (39%) cases compared to non-tumorous tissues. Up-regulated Snail could be found in 6 cases with reduced or negative E-cadherin expression. However, there was no correlation to increased SIP1 expression. Interestingly, we could detect abnormal expression of N-cadherin mRNA in 6 cases, which was correlated with Twist overexpression in 4 cases. From 20 intestinal-type gastric cancer samples reduced E-cadherin expression was found in 12 (60%) cases, which was correlated to up-regulation of SIP1, since 10 of these 12 cases showed elevated mRNA levels, whereas Snail, Twist, and N-cadherin were not up-regulated. We present the first study investigating the role of EMT regulators in human gastric cancer and provide evidence that an increase in Snail mRNA expression is associated with down-regulation of E-cadherin in diffuse-type gastric cancer. We detected abnormally positive or increased N-cadherin mRNA levels in the same tumors, probably due to overexpression of Twist. SIP1 overexpression could not be linked to down-regulated E-cadherin in diffuse-type tumors, but was found to be involved in the pathogenesis of intestinal-type gastric carcinoma. We conclude that EMT regulators play different roles in gastric carcinogenesis depending on the histological subtype.American Journal Of Pathology 12/2002; 161(5):1881-91. · 4.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is a familial cancer syndrome defined by germline mutation of the E-cadherin gene (CDH-1). The cumulative risk for advanced gastric cancer in HDGC is 67% in men and 83% in women by 80 years of age. Early HDGC is characterized by multiple microscopic foci of intramucosal signet-ring cell carcinoma. The time to progression of these foci appears to be variable and currently is not predictable--the carcinoma foci may remain confined to the mucosa for many years. The management options for mutation carriers include prophylactic gastrectomy or surveillance gastroscopy. The only extensive published surveillance experience used chromogastroscopy, which detected early HDGC foci not visible on white-light endoscopy. The use of new techniques such as confocal microscopy, spectroscopy, or autofluorescence may prove useful, but have not been studied in HDGC. In patients up to 20 years of age, the risk for gastric cancer is less than 1%; this risk is outweighed by the mortality and morbidity associated with total gastrectomy. It is therefore recommended that genetic testing should occur at 16 years of age and that annual surveillance chromogastroscopy also should begin at age 16 in identified CDH-1 mutation carriers. After 20 years of age, delaying prophylactic gastrectomy carries significant risk, particularly if the alternative is surveillance by white-light gastroscopy. Surveillance chromogastroscopy (Congo red/methylene blue technique) should be considered for individuals younger than 20 years and patients unwilling to undergo prophylactic gastrectomy. Sufficient evidence for an increased risk for lobular breast cancer in CDH-1 carriers exists to justify breast screening in female carriers older than 35 years of age, however, evidence is insufficient to recommend prophylactic mastectomy.Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 04/2006; 4(3):262-75. · 6.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To study the role of CDH1/E-cadherin (E-cad) gene alteration profiles including mutation, loss of heterozygosity (LOH), promoter polymorphism and hypermethylation in mechanisms of CDH1 inactivation in gastric carcinoma (GC). Specimens were collected surgically from 70 patients with GC. Allelotyping PCR and detection of LOH, denaturing high pressure liquid chromatography and DNA sequencing, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, methylation specific PCR, and immunohistochemical staining were used. Promoter polymorphism was not a major mechanism of E-cad inactivation. Only one truncating mutation was found in a diffuse type tumor (3%). Both LOH and promoter hypermethylation were major mechanisms of E-cad inactivation, but interestingly, there was a negative association between the fraction of allelic loss (LOH) in tumors and hypermethylation of CDH1. Therefore LOH and hypermethylation were two different tumorigenic pathways involved in GC. Given the findings that somatic mutation was extremely low and the relationship between LOH and hypermethylation was inverse, any two combinations of these three factors cannot fulfill the classical two-hit hypothesis of CDH1 inactivation. Thus, other mechanisms operating at the transcriptional level or at the post-translational level might be required to induce E-cadherin inactivation.World Journal of Gastroenterology 05/2006; 12(14):2168-73. · 2.55 Impact Factor