Activity and stability of human kallikrein-2-specific linear and cyclic peptide inhibitors.
ABSTRACT Human glandular kallikrein (KLK2) is a highly prostate-specific serine protease, which is mainly excreted into the seminal fluid, but part of which is also secreted into circulation from prostatic tumors. Since the expression level of KLK2 is elevated in aggressive tumors and it has been suggested to mediate the metastasis of prostate cancer, inhibition of the proteolytic activity of KLK2 is of potential therapeutic value. We have previously identified several KLK2-specific linear peptides by phage display technology. Two of its synthetic analogs, A R R P A P A P G (KLK2a) and G A A R F K V W W A A G (KLK2b), show specific inhibition of KLK2 but their sensitivity to proteolysis in vivo may restrict their potential use as therapeutic agents. In order to improve the stability of the linear peptides for in vivo use, we have prepared cyclic analogs and compared their biological activity and their structural stability. A series of cyclic variants with cysteine bridges were synthesized. Cyclization inactivated one peptide (KLK2a) and its derivatives, while the other peptide (KLK2b) and its derivatives remained active. Furthermore, backbone cyclization of KLK2b improved significantly the resistance against proteolysis by trypsin and human plasma. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies showed that cyclization of the KLK2b peptides does not make the structures more rigid. In conclusion, we have shown that backbone cyclization of KLK2 inhibitory peptides can be used to increase stability without losing biological activity. This should render the peptides more useful for in vivo applications, such as tumor imaging and prostate cancer targeting.
Article: Genetic association study of a single nucleotide polymorphism of kallikrein-related peptidase 2 with male infertility.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To investigate a kallikrein-related peptidase 2 (KLK2) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in relation to male infertility because of its role in semen processing. We investigated the genetic association of the KLK2+255G>A genotype with male infertility. We genotyped the SNP site located in intron 1 (+255G>A, rs2664155) of KLK2 from 218 men with male infertility (cases) and 220 fertile males (controls). Pyrosequencing analysis was performed for the genotyping. The SNP of the KLK2 gene had a statistically significant association with male infertility (p<0.05). The odds ratio for the minor allele (+255A) in the pooled sample was 0.47 (95% confidence intervals, 0.26-0.85) for rs2664155. The relationship of KLK2 SNP to male infertility is statistically significant, especially within the non-azoospermia group. Further study is needed to understand the mechanisms associated with male infertility.Clinical and experimental reproductive medicine. 03/2011; 38(1):6-9.