The presence of psychotic symptoms in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has already been recognized. Using the Structured Clinical Interview Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, we searched for and assessed psychotic symptoms in 91 males suffering from combat-related PTSD. Hallucinations and delusions were present in 20% of patients. We divided all patients into three groups: the group with hallucinations and delusions, the group without these symptoms, and the group with "subthreshold" psychotic symptoms. Using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, and Structured Clinical Interview Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, we investigated differences between groups in the intensity of traumatization, severity of PTSD symptoms, and the frequency of depression. There were no significant differences between groups; however, there was one exception: severity of hyperarousal symptoms was positively correlated with occurrence of psychotic symptoms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evidence is accumulating that borderline personality disorder (BPD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) ares related to small hippocampal and amygdala size, and to impaired cognition. We report results from several recent empirical studies on female BPD patients with childhood abuse and PTSD and female BPD patients with childhood abuse and a dissociative disorder (dissociative amnesia, DA, or dissociative identity disorder, DID). BPD patients with PTSD presented with small hippocampal and amygdala size and impaired cognition. However, BPD patients with DA or DID showed normal hippocampal and amygdala size, and normal cognition. Further investigation into the structure of superior parietal cortices, being crucial for psychological processes regarding the self, yielded increased superior parietal cortex volumes in BPD patients with DA or DID, but not PTSD. It may be concluded that high-level dissociation may protect the brain from stress-related deteriorating influences on hippocampus and amygdala. On the other hand, it may be possible that trauma-exposed persons with pre-existing small hippocampal and amygdala size are at risk for developing PTSD, but not DA or DID. Furthermore, it may be speculated that high-level dissociation during childhood makes an unusual or abnormal superior parietal cortex development more likely. Abnormal superior parietal cortex size may in turn lead to chronic and dominant dissociative behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the consequences of psychotrauma in civilian women in Herzegovina who were exposed to prolonged and repetitive traumatic war events and postwar social stressors.
The study included a cluster sample of 367 adult women, divided into two groups. One group (n=187) comprised women from West Mostar who were exposed to serious war and posttraumatic war events. The other group (n=180) comprised women from urban areas in Western Herzegovina who were not directly exposed to war destruction and material losses, but experienced war indirectly, through military drafting of their family members and friends. Demographic data on the women were collected by a questionnaire created for the purpose of this study. Data on trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were collected by Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ)--Bosnia-Herzegovina version. General psychological symptoms were determined with Symptom Check List-90-revised (SCL-90-R). Data on postwar stressors were collected by a separate questionnaire.
In comparison with the control group, women from Western Mostar experienced significantly more traumatic events (mean+/-standard deviation [SD], 3.3+/-3.2 vs 10.1+/-4.9, respectively, t=15.91; P<0.001) and had more posttraumatic symptoms (12.3+/-10.3 vs 21.2+/-10.9, respectively, t=8.42; P<0.001). They also had significantly higher prevalence of PTSD (4.4% vs 28.3%, respectively; chi(2)=52.56; P<0.001). The number of traumatic events experienced during the war was positively associated with postwar stressful events both in the West Mostar group (r=0.223; P=0.002) and control group (r=0.276; P<0.001). Postwar stressful events contributed both to the number and intensity of PTSD symptoms and all general psychological symptoms measured with SCL-90 questionnaire, independently from the number of experienced traumatic war events.
Long-term exposure to war and postwar stressors caused serious psychological consequences in civilian women, with PTSD being only one of the disorders in the wide spectrum of posttraumatic reactions. Postwar stressors did not influence the prevalence of PTSD but they did contribute to the intensity and number of posttraumatic symptoms.
Croatian Medical Journal 04/2007; 48(2):167-76. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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