Multiplex analysis of serum cytokines in melanoma patients treated with interferon-alpha 2b
ABSTRACT Interferon (IFN)-alpha2b is the only Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment for operable high-risk melanoma that has been shown to significantly and durably prolong relapse-free survival (RFS) of patients with stage IIB-III melanoma. Development of reliable serum assays may contribute to the development of methods for earlier detection of melanoma and the selection of patients who may be most susceptible to current available interventions with IFNalpha.
A powerful high-throughput xMAP multiplex immunobead assay technology (Luminex Corp., Austin, TX) was used to simultaneously test 29 cytokines, chemokines, angiogenic as well as growth factors, and soluble receptors in the sera of 179 patients with high-risk melanoma and 378 healthy individuals.
Serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p40, IL-13, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, MIP-1beta, IFNalpha, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, epidermal growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and TNF receptor II were found to be significantly higher in patients with resected high-risk melanoma compared with healthy controls. Bayesian Network algorithm classification of the data offered 90% sensitivity at 98% specificity with 96.5% of melanoma patients distinguished from healthy individuals. IFN-alpha2b therapy resulted in a significant decrease of serum levels of immunosuppressive and tumor angiogenic/growth stimulatory factors (VEGF, epidermal growth factor, and hepatocyte growth factor) and increased levels of antiangiogenic IFN-gamma inducible protein 10 (IP-10) and IFN-alpha. Pretreatment levels of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, IL-1alpha, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and chemokines MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta were found to be significantly higher in the serum of patients with longer RFS values of 1 to 5 and >5 years when compared with patients with shorter RFS of <1 year.
These data show that multiplexed analysis of serum biomarkers is useful for the evaluation of prognostic markers of clinical outcome and potential predictive markers of response to IFN-alpha2b in patients with high-risk operable melanoma.
SourceAvailable from: Larisa Geskin[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Immunological functions decline with age. Because MS/SzS predominately affects the elderly, it is important to distinguish age-related from cancer-specific changes. Also, MF/SzS are malignancies of CD4+ T-lymphocytes, further compromising an immune state of the patients. The objectives of this study were to distinguish disease-specific immunological deterioration by performing comparative age-matched Luminex multiplex assessment of 34 serum biomarkers between MF/SzS patients, HIV patients, and normal controls. Controlling for age, expression level appears to significantly differ among MF/SzS patients and controls for the following biomarkers: G-CSF, IL-5, MIP-1β, TNF-α, VEGF, EOTAXIN, IL-8, IL-12, IL-2R, IP10, MCP-1, MIG, TNFR1, TNFR2 (p<0.05), while others showed normal age-related changes. Interestingly, cluster analysis placed MF/SzS profiles closer to HIV. This further underscores an immunologically compromised state of patients with MF/SzS and suggests its potential self-perpetuating role in disease progression.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Experimental Dermatology 05/2014; 23(8). DOI:10.1111/exd.12455 · 4.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are important enzymes in tissue turnover and various inflammatory processes. In this study, it was evaluated whether serum MMP-8 can predict the response to adjuvant interferon alfa-2b (IFN-α) therapy in patients with operated high-risk cutaneous melanoma. Pre-treatment sera from 460 patients with stage IIB-IIIC melanoma were analyzed for MMP-8. The patients were randomized after surgery to adjuvant IFN-α for 12 or 24 months (n = 313) or observation only (n = 147). The median serum MMP-8 level was used to classify the patients into a low MMP-8 (n = 232) and a high MMP-8 (n = 228) group. In the high MMP-8 subgroup, IFN-α therapy significantly improved relapse-free survival (RFS). RFS was 36.8 months in patients with high MMP-8 levels receiving IFN-α therapy, whereas RFS for those with high MMP-8 levels with observation only was 10.6 months (P = 0.027). Median overall survival for patients with high MMP-8 and observation only was 36.7 versus 71.7 months in those receiving IFN-α (P = 0.13). In a multivariate model, IFN-α therapy was a significant predictor of favorable RFS (HR 0.74; 95 % CI 0.55-0.99; P = 0.048), after adjustment for pre-treatment MMP-8 (HR 1.17; 95 % CI 0.88-1.55; P = 0.28), gender (HR 1.16; 95 % CI 0.86-1.56; P = 0.32), age (HR 1.00; 95 % CI 1.00-1.02; P = 0.12), ulceration (HR 1.09; 95 % CI 0.81-1.46; P = 0.58), and the presence of node metastases (HR 1.36; 95 % CI 1.17-1.58; P < 0.0001). In conclusion, patients with high serum MMP-8 levels may benefit from adjuvant IFN-α therapy, but this observation should be further investigated.Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 10/2014; 64(2). DOI:10.1007/s00262-014-1620-1 · 3.94 Impact Factor