Systemic and specific delivery of small interfering RNAs to the liver mediated by apolipoprotein A-I.
ABSTRACT Tissue-targeted delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) must be achieved before RNA interference (RNAi) technology can be used in practical therapeutic approaches. In this study, the potential of apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) for the systemic delivery of nucleic acids to the liver is demonstrated using real-time in vivo imaging. As a proof of concept, synthetic siRNAs against hepatitis B virus (HBV) were formulated into complexes of apo A-I and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP)/cholesterol (DTC-Apo) and injected intravenously (i.v.) into a mouse model carrying replicating HBV. We show that administration of these nanoparticles can significantly reduce viral protein expression by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The advantages of the apo A-I-mediated siRNA delivery method are its liver specificity, its effectiveness at low doses (< or = 2 mg/kg) in only a single treatment, and its persistent antiviral effect up to 8 days. The liver-targeted gene silencing was also shown by in vivo images, in which bioluminescent signals emitted from the liver were efficiently reduced after i.v. administration of luciferase-specific siRNA and DTC-Apo lipoplex. Thus, our unique approach to siRNA delivery creates a foundation for the development of a new class of promising therapeutics against hepatitis viruses or hepatocyte genes related to tumor growth.
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ABSTRACT: Salmosin is a novel disintegrin containing the Arg-Gly-Asp sequence that significantly inhibits platelet aggregation, basic fibroblast growth factor- induced endothelial cell proliferation, and tumor progression by antagonizing integrin-mediated cell interactions. Previously, it was shown that daily ad- ministration of salmosin was able to inhibit tumor-derived angiogenesis and adherence and proliferation of tumor cells, resulting in suppression of tumor progression. However, it is very difficult to maintain a therapeutic level of salmosin in the blood by systemic administration of the protein. Hence, an alternative strategy for antiangiogenic cancer therapy, based on the in vivo expression of the salmosin gene administered with cationic liposomes, was investigated. The salmosin peptides expressed in vitro inhibited the prolifer- ation of bovine capillary endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner, pre- sumably as a result of inhibition of cell adhesion mediated via v3 integrin. Subcutaneous administration of the salmosin gene resulted in systemic ex- pression of the gene product and concomitant inhibition of the growth of B16BL6 melanoma cells. Suppression of pulmonary metastases, verified by experimental and spontaneous metastasis models in mice, also resulted from salmosin gene treatment. These results suggest that administration of the salmosin gene complexed to cationic liposomes is effective in maintaining antiangiogenic salmosin at an effective therapeutic level and may be clinically applicable to anticancer gene therapy.Cancer Research 11/2003; 63(19). · 8.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To increase cationic liposome-mediated intravenous DNA delivery extruded DOTAP:cholesterol liposomes were used to form complexes with DNA, resulting in enhanced expression of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene in most tissues examined. The DNA:liposome ratio, and mild sonication, heating, and extrusion steps used for liposome preparation were crucial for improved systemic delivery. Size fractionation studies showed that maximal gene expression was produced by a homogeneous population of DNA:liposome complexes between 200 to 450 nm in size. Cryo-electron microscopy examination demonstrates that the DNA:liposome complexes have a novel morphology, and that the DNA is condensed on the interior of invaginated liposomes between two lipid bilayers. This structure could account for the high efficiency of gene delivery in vivo and for the broad tissue distribution of the DNA:liposome complexes. Ligands can be placed on the outside of this structure to provide for targeted gene delivery.Nature Biotechnology 08/1997; 15(7):647-52. · 32.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The hepatitis B virus (HBV), as a major cause of acute and chronic hepatitis in humans, contains a partial double-stranded circular DNA genome of 3.2kb that is transcribed into the 3.5-, 2.4-, 2.1-, and 0.7-kb viral transcripts by the host RNA polymerase II. The HBV X (HBx) gene is consistently expressed in all four HBV viral mRNAs and thus an ideal target for developing viral inhibitors via a gene therapeutic approach. In this study, we show that two HBx-specific small interfering RNAs (siRNA), HBx1 and HBx3, significantly decrease both viral RNA and protein levels, and completely block replication in cultured cells co-transfected with a siRNA expression plasmid and an HBV replication-competent vector. To further confirm these antiviral activities of selected siRNAs in small animals, we established acute and chronic HBV mouse models by hydrodynamic injection of this plasmid containing the full-length HBV genome. Selected HBx-specific siRNAs also induced a significant anti-viral effect in living animals. Our findings should facilitate the development of an alternative therapeutic agent against HBV infection, particularly HBV-derived hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in which HBx has been known as one of the major pathological factors.Virus Research 09/2006; 119(2):146-53. · 2.75 Impact Factor