Nonsynostotic occipital plagiocephaly: factors impacting onset, treatment, and outcomes.
ABSTRACT Nonsynostotic occipital plagiocephaly remains a diagnosis of concern in infancy. This study evaluates factors affecting the onset, treatment, and outcomes of nonsynostotic occipital plagiocephaly.
A retrospective chart review and telephone survey were performed. A posterior occipital deformation severity score was used. Factors such as demographics, behavioral and helmet therapy, feeding patterns, torticollis, multiple gestation pregnancies, prematurity, and congenital nonsynostotic occipital plagiocephaly were evaluated.
One hundred five infants were identified. Of these, 95 percent were Caucasian, 93 percent were from two-parent households, and 70 percent were from households earning more than $50,000. Repositioning was attempted in 95 percent, and 45 percent progressed to helmet therapy. When comparing change in posterior occipital deformation severity score with helmet therapy to repositioning, a difference was found (p < 0.05). Forty-nine percent of patients were breast-fed, and when compared with the general population, a difference was found (p < 0.05). Twenty percent of infants had torticollis, and when compared with population norms, a difference was found (p < 0.05). Twelve percent of patients were twins, and when compared with population norms, more twinning occurred (p < 0.05). Congenital nonsynostotic occipital plagiocephaly was found in 10 percent of patients and did not result in an increased risk of progression to helmet therapy.
This study demonstrates trends that may predict additional risks for developing nonsynostotic occipital plagiocephaly, including torticollis, plural births, and increased socioeconomic affluence. In addition, the nonsynostotic occipital plagiocephaly cohort was breast-fed less than the general population, demonstrating that breast-feeding may be preventative, as breast-fed infants are repositioned more frequently and sleep for shorter periods. As in other studies, cranial molding helmet therapy was more effective in correcting nonsynostotic occipital plagiocephaly than repositioning alone.
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ABSTRACT: Cranial deformation is the most common cause of abnormal head shape. Intentional and unintentional alterations of cranial form are associated with the application of external pressure to the growing infant head, and such changes have been recorded throughout man's history. Recent changes in Western sleeping practices, instituted to reduce the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome, have led to a dramatic rise in cranial deformation and renewed interest in this subject. This 2-part review presents a pragmatic clinical approach to this topic including a critical review of the literature as it applies to each aspect of this common diagnosis: historical perspective, terminology, differential diagnosis, etiopathogenesis and predisposing factors, and prevention and treatment.The Journal of craniofacial surgery 01/2011; 22(1):17-23. · 0.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Multiple risk factors for deformational plagiocephaly (DP) have been reported. The purpose of this study was to establish the impact of these variables on the severity of this deformity. A prospective cohort study was performed. Parents completed a standardized questionnaire assessing potential risk factors for DP before assessment. Examination included measurement of transcranial difference (TCD; ie, difference in oblique cranial lengths), evaluation of head tilt, and rotational asymmetry. Pearson correlation coefficient, 1-way analysis of variance, and 2-sample t-test were used to quantify the relationship between identified risk factors and TCD. A total of 434 patients with DP were evaluated. Male-to-female ratio was 2:1; mean gestational age was 36.5 weeks. Deformational plagiocephaly was first appreciated at a mean infant age of 6 weeks. A preexisting diagnosis of torticollis was noted in fewer than 50%. Mean TCD was 11.2 mm. Head tilt was documented in 80% of infants, and mean head rotational asymmetry was 16.4 degrees. Deformational plagiocephaly was more severe in multiple birth pregnancies (P < 0.05), males (P < 0.05), infants with a favorite head position (P < 0.01), preexamination diagnosis of torticollis (P < 0.05), and infants with a head tilt (P < 0.05). Lower gestational age (P < 0.05) and greater head rotational asymmetry (P < 0.0001) were found to correlate with DP severity. This study suggests that the relationship between the severity of DP and certain risk factors can be quantified. The presence and degree of cervical imbalance correlate strongly with deformational cranial asymmetry.The Journal of craniofacial surgery 01/2009; 20 Suppl 1:685-9. · 0.81 Impact Factor