Nonsynostotic occipital plagiocephaly: factors impacting onset, treatment, and outcomes.
ABSTRACT Nonsynostotic occipital plagiocephaly remains a diagnosis of concern in infancy. This study evaluates factors affecting the onset, treatment, and outcomes of nonsynostotic occipital plagiocephaly.
A retrospective chart review and telephone survey were performed. A posterior occipital deformation severity score was used. Factors such as demographics, behavioral and helmet therapy, feeding patterns, torticollis, multiple gestation pregnancies, prematurity, and congenital nonsynostotic occipital plagiocephaly were evaluated.
One hundred five infants were identified. Of these, 95 percent were Caucasian, 93 percent were from two-parent households, and 70 percent were from households earning more than $50,000. Repositioning was attempted in 95 percent, and 45 percent progressed to helmet therapy. When comparing change in posterior occipital deformation severity score with helmet therapy to repositioning, a difference was found (p < 0.05). Forty-nine percent of patients were breast-fed, and when compared with the general population, a difference was found (p < 0.05). Twenty percent of infants had torticollis, and when compared with population norms, a difference was found (p < 0.05). Twelve percent of patients were twins, and when compared with population norms, more twinning occurred (p < 0.05). Congenital nonsynostotic occipital plagiocephaly was found in 10 percent of patients and did not result in an increased risk of progression to helmet therapy.
This study demonstrates trends that may predict additional risks for developing nonsynostotic occipital plagiocephaly, including torticollis, plural births, and increased socioeconomic affluence. In addition, the nonsynostotic occipital plagiocephaly cohort was breast-fed less than the general population, demonstrating that breast-feeding may be preventative, as breast-fed infants are repositioned more frequently and sleep for shorter periods. As in other studies, cranial molding helmet therapy was more effective in correcting nonsynostotic occipital plagiocephaly than repositioning alone.
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ABSTRACT: Deformational plagiocephaly refers to the development of an abnormal head shape in infants resulting from externally applied molding forces, which may occur either prenatally or postnatally. We have observed that an unexpectedly high number of multiple-birth infants have presented to our center with this condition. The purposes of this investigation were to: 1) determine the significance of this observation; and 2) examine the risk factors that may make this population more susceptible to the development of plagiocephaly. A retrospective review of our database was performed to identify those infants who were of multiple-birth origin. The parents of these infants were contacted by phone to complete a survey regarding the prenatal and postnatal history of their child. Similar information was obtained for the state of Arizona from the Office of Vital Statistics. A chi2 analysis was used to compare the incidence of multiple births in Arizona with the incidence of multiple births in our treatment population. Between 1993 and 1996, 69 (8.6%) of the 801 infants treated for deformational plagiocephaly at our Phoenix center were of multiple-birth origin. Four infants who had been treated postoperatively after surgery for craniosynostosis, as well as 5 patients who had been referred from out of state, were excluded from further study. The chi2 analysis of the remaining 60 patients confirmed that a statistically significant number of plural-birth infants had presented with deformational plagiocephaly. Four risk factors were identified as having occurred at high frequency in this population: in utero constraint, supine sleeping position, torticollis, and prematurity. The current findings of this investigation confirm that a significant number of multiple-birth infants have presented to our clinic with deformational plagiocephaly. Compared with their singleton counterparts, plural infants seem to be at higher risk for the development of deformational plagiocephaly, because they are more likely to be exposed to multiple risk factors.deformational plagiocephaly, multiple birth, plurality.PEDIATRICS 04/1999; 103(3):565-9. · 4.47 Impact Factor
- Pediatrics 08/1992; 90(1 Pt 1):115-8. · 5.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dynamic Orthotic Cranioplasty (DOC) was developed to treat craniofacial deformities associated with positional plagiocephaly. This investigation describes the treatment of more than 750 patients with the DOC Band since 1988. All patients undergoing DOC treatment were fit with a custom fabricated orthosis made from a plaster impression taken from the infant's head. When the orthosis was applied, the corrective pressure was directed to hold growth at the calvarial prominences and redirect symmetrical growth. A detailed medical history was obtained and anthropometric measurements were taken at start, exit, 12, 18, and 24 months follow-up. This information was recorded in a database created in Microsoft Excel. Mean length of treatment was 4.3 months with an average entrance age of 6.9 months. Analysis of anthropometric data showed significant reduction in mean cranial vault, skull base, and facial asymmetries. Correction of the more difficult skull base was documented with computed tomography. Our anthropometric and clinical observations document complete or near complete correction of asymmetry for a wide variety of head shapes. Based on the results of this investigation, we are able to support the earlier claims of our pilot study, which concluded that DOC is effective in the treatment of positional plagiocephaly.Journal of Craniofacial Surgery 02/1998; 9(1):11-7; discussion 18-9. · 0.69 Impact Factor