Metallodielectric hollow shells: optical and catalytic properties.
ABSTRACT Metallodielectric composites with tunable optical properties were prepared by layer-by-layer assembly of gold nanorods on polystyrene (PS) spheres and subsequent deposition of SiO2 or TiO2 encapsulating shells through a sol-gel process. The optical properties of the core-shells were tailored in the visible and the near-infrared region through the gold nanorod aspect ratio and the gold nanoparticle density. Removal of the PS core by dissolution in an appropriate solvent, such as THF, yielded metallodielectric hollow shells with optical properties identical to those of the original composites. The presence of gold and the porosity of the SiO2 or TiO2 shells, suitable to allow diffusion of reactants and products, make these materials of interest as catalysts, as demonstrated by the reduction of potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) with NaBH4.
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ABSTRACT: Microcrystalline TiO(2) with an anatase crystal structure is used as an anode material for lithium rechargeable batteries, and also as a material for electrochromic and solar-cell devices. When intercalated with lithium, as required for battery applications, TiO(2) anatase undergoes spontaneous phase separation into lithium-poor (Li(0.01)TiO(2)) and lithium-rich (Li(0.6)TiO(2)) domains on a scale of several tens of nanometres. During discharge, batteries need to maintain a constant electrical potential between their electrodes over a range of lithium concentrations. The two-phase equilibrium system in the electrodes provides such a plateau in potential, as only the relative phase fractions vary on charging (or discharging) of the lithium. Just as the equilibrium between a liquid and a vapour is maintained by a continuous exchange of particles between the two phases, a similar exchange is required to maintain equilibrium in the solid state. But the time and length scales over which this exchange takes place are unclear. Here we report the direct observation by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance of the continuous lithium-ion exchange between the intermixed crystallographic phases of lithium-intercalated TiO(2). We find that, at room temperature, the continuous flux of lithium ions across the phase boundaries is as high as 1.2 x 10(20) s(-1) m(-2).Nature 08/2002; 418(6896):397-9. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We present a novel method for remote release of an encapsulated material from polyelectrolyte capsules based on laser light illumination. Two different components were introduced in the polyelectrolyte shells of PAH/PSS capsules-either Ag nanoparticles or IR dye-to induce absorption of light. Under laser illumination the capsules containing Ag nanoparticles or IR dye were deformed or cut, thus providing a venue for remote release of encapsulated materials. The experiments were conducted with a low-power near-infrared continuous-wave laser diode.Langmuir 09/2004; 20(17):6988-92. · 4.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hollow silica and silica-polymer spheres with diameters between 720 and 1000 nanometers were fabricated by consecutively assembling silica nanoparticles and polymer onto colloids and subsequently removing the templated colloid either by calcination or decomposition upon exposure to solvents. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy images demonstrate that the wall thickness of the hollow spheres can be readily controlled by varying the number of nanoparticle-polymer deposition cycles, and the size and shape are determined by the morphology of the templating colloid. The hollow spheres produced are envisioned to have applications in areas ranging from medicine to pharmaceutics to materials science.Science 12/1998; 282(5391):1111-4. · 31.20 Impact Factor